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Flashcards in Midterm 2 Deck (23)
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What are the 2 types of malnutrition?

1. Caused by lack of access to food and water
2. An excess of proteins and animal fats


Define metabolism

Metabolism is the chemical processes like catabolism and anabolism that occur within a living cell to maintain life


What are the 2 main ways our body deals with food?

1. Hormones and neurons control food intake through homeostatic and hedonic systems

2. Hormones control food processing and storage


Give a brief of the digestive system in 6 steps.

1. Mouth: where food is broken down, and salivary gland create a bolus
2. Esophagus: pharynx sends bolus down esophagus where it makes its way down via peristalsis
3. Stomach: food is broken down via hcl, and mechanical digestion; pepsin digests proteins
4. Small intestine: liver,gallbladder,and pancreas release bile containing enzymes to break down proteins and sugars, and neutralize stomach acid
5. Reabsorbs water and vitamins and minerals
6. Rectum & anus: stores and then excretes feces


What are the macronutrients our body needs?

Lipids, Carbs, Proteins, and Nucleic acids


What are the micro nutrients our body needs?

Minerals, Vitamins, and Salt


What is the main thing that macronutrients do for an organism?

Give the organism most of the metabolic energy it deserves


What is the function of carbohydrates in the human body?

1. Can store energy
2. Can be part of certain molecules
3. Can be a intermediate in chemical reactions


How are carbohydrates metabolized in the body? Explain the 3 steps

1. Salivary amylase in the mouth breaks down starch to shorter glucose chains
2. The now short glucose chains are NOT broken down further in the stomach because HCl deactivates amylase and proteases break it down
3. In the small intestine pancreatic amylase breaks down starch to maltose, other enzymes break down disaccharides to monosaccharides, which are absorbed into the blood stream


What role does glucose play in carbohydrate metabolism? What are the 4 steps in brief?

Insulin is needed to bind to insulin receptors in order for glucose to be able to enter the cell.

1. Insulin binds to insulin receptor 2. Insulin binding triggers a signal transduction cascade 3. signalling cell to insert GLUT4 into the membrane 4. Glucose is able to enter the cell


What are the 5 hormones that regulate glucose/carbohydrate metabolism?

Insulin, Growth hormone, thyroxine & tri-iodothyronine, cortisol, non-epinephrine and epinephrin


At what point in glucose regulation does insulin get triggered? What is the function of insulin/glucagon?

- When glucose concentrations are high in the blood stream, insulin is triggered. When concentrations are low, glucagon is triggered (releases insulin from receptor)

- Function of insulin is to promote storage of glucose.


General definition of metabolic syndrome

Cluster of the most dangerous heart attack symptoms: abdominal obesity, high cholesterol, high blood pressure, diabetes.


What is the harmonized definition of metabolism?

Anyone that qualifies as having 3 of following 4 risk factors: abdominal obesity, dyslipidemia (cholesterol), hypertension (blood pressure), hyperglycemia (diabetes)


What classifies someone as having abdominal obesity?

40 inches in men and 35 inches in women


What is WHOs definition on metabolic syndrome? (Good for research)

Insulin resistance (diabetes 2) and 2 of the following risk factors: BMI > 30, triglycerides over 1.69mM, HDL in men less than 0.9mM and in women less than 1.04, Blood pressure 140/90 mmHg, High albumin/creatin in urine


What is the IDC definition of MetS?

1. High waist circumference
2. Triglycerides over 1.7mM, and
3. Low HDLs ~ ( 1.0 mM in men and 1.03 mM in women)


What is the relation between cardiovascular heart disease and metabolic syndrome?

They're proportional; as the number of of metabolic syndrome components increase in an individual, so does their increased risk for cardiovascular disease.


What are the risk factors of MetS?

Genetics, Physical inactivity, Aging, hormonal changes, pro-inflammatory state


Primary, Secondary, and Tertiary prevention

Primary: life style changes

Secondary: public education, and screening

Tertiary: management of multiple risk factors


How do you calculate BMI and what are the 2 danger zones?

BMI = weight in kg/(height in m)^2 & less than 18.5 and greater than 25 kg/m^2 accounts for an elevated risk of many different diseases


What are the modifiable risks of obesity?

1. Excess calorie intake
2. Physical inactivity/ sedentary lifestyle
3. Shorter sleep duration
4. childhood exposures


What are the treatments of obesity?

1. Lifestyle changes: diet, exercise, behaviour therapy
2. Pharmacological: appetite suppressant, weight loss drugs etc
3. Surgery: ART, Scrotal lipectomy, Bariatric surgery