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Flashcards in Midterm 2 Terms Deck (33):
1

Pop Culture as constitutive

Argues that pop culture actively shapes norms, ideas, identities, and beliefs in a state, society or region

2

Hunger Games test case hypothesis

Hypotheses:
1. Fiction increases issue salience (importance)
2. Fiction increases narrative persuasion (making certain actions more justifiable)
3. Fiction makes students more politically cynical

3

Issue salience

How much a person/society cares about an issue

4

Hunger Games experiment method

randomly assigned young people to read or watch parts of dystopian fiction and compared their attitudes to those who watched nothing and only news media

5

Hunger Games Results

Increased support for radical political methods over legal, peaceful ones when contesting injustice

6

Defining war

A state of organized, armed conflict between political communities; three characteristics (organized in groups, armed, political purpose)

7

Clausewitz

Believed that war should be an extension of politics in that there should be a clear political goal

8

Early approaches to cause of war

human nature is destructive, anthropology: war is culturally constructed, psychology: how people feel they are perceived and how they see themselves affects war

9

Neorealist study of war

causes of war are found on a systemic level

10

relational concept of power

a state has power over another state if they can get it to so something it would not otherwise do (power arises out of interactions)

11

unit-level concept of power

A state has a lot of military capability or economic resources that could translate into military capability (inherently has power)

12

Key factors in measuring power

geography, economic base, population size, types of forces, nationalism, technology, leadership, regime type, doctrine

13

Realist paths to war

fundamental conflict of interest, security dilemmas (preemptive war), preventative war, hegemonic war

14

power transition theory

the probability of a major war is greatest at the point when the declining leader is being overtaken by a rising challenger

15

Realist paths to peace

balancing, bandwagoning, buckpassing, appeasement

16

Balancing

internal: building up own military to balance a power
external: creating alliances to counter a power

17

Bandwagoning

joining a rising power to hopefully gain some benefit (Mearsheimer says is bad)

18

Buckpassing

letting someone else bear to the costs of checking the aggressor (Mearsheimer says preferred way)

19

Appeasement

providing a rising power with something it wants in the hope that it will stop them from pursuing more

20

Strategies for gaining power

war, blackmail, bait and bleed (lead rivals into conflict with each other), bloodletting (stay on sidelines)

21

Blainey Balance of Power

Says balance of power is only clear in the aftermath of a conflict because power is relational--so states go to war when they disagree about their relative power

22

Strategic Issues with Nukes

First strike capability: ability to strike a state with a nuke so they can't strike back
Second strike capability: ability to withstand a nuke attack from another states and launch a retaliatory strike in response

23

NPT: Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty

1968: an agreement that only France, US, USSR, UK and China are allowed to have nukes, but they are going to work on reducing the number they have; if others agree not to pursue nukes, they can use nuclear material for civilian purposes

24

Issues with NPT

some sovereign states have not signed, others have signed but violated, it's hypocritical for the 5 countries, it's not taken seriously

25

Deterrence

To discourage potential actors or aggressors from acting by convincing him or her that the probable cost of their actions will far exceed any anticipated gains

26

Conditions for deterrence to succeed

clarity, capability, credibility

27

Issues with deterrence

rationality and self-discipline/state ability

28

International law

a body of rules which bind states and other agents in world politics in their relations with one another (implicit and explicit)

29

Institution

set of roles structuring and regulating state interactions

30

How institutions facilitate cooperation

increase the number of transactions among states, reduce transaction costs of individual agreements, enable closer monitoring, link issues

31

Concert of Europe

1815: aim was to maintain balance of power in Europe by preventing hegemony; was too informal, elitist, politically conservative and not adaptable to Germany as a rising power

32

League of Nations

1920: aim was to pursue the liberal idea of collective security for all; but did not reflect the existing distribution of power, limited enforcement capability, unanimity hampered ability to make decisions

33

UN

1945: has peacekeeping, security council, a judicial organ, and specialized agencies like UNICEF