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Flashcards in Final Terms Deck (55):

Procedural minimum definition of democracy

1) fair and open elections 2) virtually all adults possess right to vote 3)political rights and civil liberties are broadly protected 4) elected authorities possess real authority


Dahl's 2 way classification

Y-axis: liberalization (public contestation
X-axis: inclusiveness (participation)


Democratic Peace Theory Explanations

1) Cultural: democracies share norms of peaceful conflict resolution, and pursue them more often when facing other democracies
2) Structural: democratic structures and institutions place constraints on leaders, making them less likely to go to war with other democracies


Democratic Peace Theory Challenges

correlation, not causation; theory based on post 1945 evidence; vague definitions of democracy and war; young democracies are more warlike



the relationship between wealth and politics



16 and 17 centuries: economics is viewed as a political tool with an overarching aim to build a strong state; privileges state over individual and economics is a zero sum game


Economic Liberalism

18 century: economics should be free from politics and the pursuit of individual self-interest leads to better outcomes overall


Ricardo's Model of Trade: Theory of Competitive Advantage

A country has a comparative advantage in producing a good if the opportunity cost for producing that item n terms of other items is lower than in other countries--i.e. if that country is more efficient at producing a good than an another country



claims that history is driven by class conflict and states are controlled by the class who own the means of production: i.e. core areas of specialized economy are favored while the periphery (those still in the outdated means of production) are exploited


Problems with economic liberalism

there are resource differences; states as a whole can benefit from trade but trade also creates winners and losers within countries (social problems); and assumes the factors of production move easily from one economic sector to another


Definition of non-state actors

non-sovereign entities that exercise economic, political, or social power and influence at a national or international level


Key attributes of non-state actors

autonomy from a state; transnational (operating across borders); have some purpose


Non-state actors over time

amount of them has increased; power and influence may be growing; tech and globalization are making it easier for them to function


Transnational Advocacy Networks

actors working internationally on an issue, who are bound together by shared values, a common discourse and dense exchanges of info and services


TAN strategies

information politics; symbolic politics; leverage politics; accountability politics


information politics

the ability to quickly and credibly generate politically usable information and move it to where it will have the most impact


symbolic politics

the ability to call upon symbols, actions, or stories that make sense of a situation that is frequently far away


leverage politics

the ability to call upon powerful actors to affect a situation where weaker members of a network are unlikely to have influence


accountability politics

the effort to hold powerful actors to their previously stated policies or principles


Epistemic communities definition

networks of professionals with recognized expertise and competence in a particular domain and an authoritative claim to policy relevant knowledge within that domain or issue-area


How epistemic communities effect world politics

Dealing with Uncertainty: clarify cause and effect relationships, help states define their interests, assist in formation and implementation of policies, encourage rational thinking


Key elements of Terrorism

involves violence or threat of violence against noncombatants; premeditated; some political motivation; aims to create fear and thus coerce an enemy into submission


History of terrorism

1800s: assassinations (focus on leader); late 1800s: expanded target range because of collective responsibility and hope that an attack would promote a popular uprising; current: about anti-americanism and religious reasons


contemporary trends in terrorism

increasing lethality; increased suicide bombings; more decentralized networked forms of organization; more amateur participation


counter terrorism approaches

people either look at the causes of terrorism and try to combat those, or they look at how terrorism ends and try to expedite that process


Causes of terrorism

Root causes: poverty or repression, but difficult to track
Tipping points: specific but unpredictable events like a family member's death
Strategic decisions: some people see terrorism as a rational tactic to achieve their aims


How terrorism ends

preemption (intelligence is used to foil plots or decapitation of group); deterrence (military force and repression causes terrorists to see that costs outweigh benefits); backlash (loss of popular support); burnout (failure to transition to next generation); transition to a legit political process; transition to other forms of violence; achievement of aims


Hegemony definition

a preponderance of power


types of international order

balance of power: where great powers balance each other to promote peace
hegemonic stability: a true hegemon maintains order and stability through the futility of challenging them and through coercion


Ikenberry: constitutional hegemonic stability

Argues that it is the fact that the hegemon participates in restraint and cooperation that makes the system stable


multipolar system (Waltz)

three of more great power leads to uncertainty and instability and great power wars are common


bipolar system (Waltz)

two great powers balance each other so there is less uncertainty and instability; small wars occur but great power wars are rare


unipolar system (Waltz)

one great power leads to ?? Hegemonic order?


National security

security against other states attacking, invading, conquering, or otherwise reducing a given state's power (i.e. staying sovereign)


Classical insurgency

Insurgents challenged the functioning state because they had their own plan for governing, they employed local propaganda and rural ambush tactics


Modern insurgency

Insurgents arise after a state has failed and have no plan for afterward, they employe global propaganda and urban bomb tactics


Changes to counter-insurgency

Kilcullen: counter-propaganda is an important as success on the battlefield; need to mobilize global, regional and local support bases (civilians); need to improve patrolling to make counterinsurgents more approachable by civilians


Synergy Hypothesis

Biddle: the decrease in violence in Iraq after 2007 was due to the Surge and the Anbar Awakening: awakening gave insurgents a way off the battlefield and provided key intelligence, the surge allowed those who left to stay out--they prevented retaliation form those who stayed


The Surge

an increase of 30,000 troops on the ground and a change in doctrine (smaller bases, unmounted patrols to encourage civilian's to approach)


Anbar awakening

The US paid insurgents to leave the insurgent movement


Sectarian Cleansing

Posits that the Sunni and Shia moved to separate themselves, creating less interaction and sparking less violence


Classical Causes of civil war (ethnic heterogeneity)

civil war comes from group dynamics and grievances: ethnic, religious, economic


Economic view (natural resources) of civil war

Civil war will happen in places where there is the opportunity for rebellion: i.e. finances and recruits


State capacity causes of civil war

Civil war arises in states that are weak and are unable to project power to the edges of the territory or fund a police force in rural or mountainous areas where rebels hide


Stability paradigm

Supporting stability in a state may be implicitly supporting an authoritarian regime that the populace doesn't want


Democracy paradigm

Supporting democracy in a state may be promoting instability in a region or may bring to power "bad actors"


Communitarian perspective of intervention

intervention is rarely justified because respect for a state's sovereignty is the most important


Cosmopolitan perspective of intervention

intervention is more justified because the wellbeing of the people in a state is more important than maintaining state sovereignty


Responsibility to Protect Initiative

2005 UN Initiative: a state has a responsibility to protect its citizens, the int'l community has a responsibility to help them and a responsibility to intervene if the state fails


Just War Theory

the use of force as a legitimate instrument of state policy is accepted in some, but not all, circumstances


When is war just?

Just cause: legit cause like self-defense
competent authority: declared by public leader
last resort: all other options must be exhausted
proportionality: benefits must outweigh costs
discrimination: respect immunity of non-combatants


Democracy Promotion

economic based, state-based, and civil society-based


economic based

use of sanctions or denial of development aid to promote the collapse of an authoritarian regime, or, promotion of economic development to encourage democracy in the long term



promise of access or membership to a valued regional organization, or, regime change through military intervention


civil society-based

build up the civil society in a state - NGOs, civic associations, free press, activists, etc