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Flashcards in Terms Deck (45):
1

What is a state?

A defined territory, a defined population and has internal and external sovreignty

2

Sovereignty

A state's right to exercise independent authority within its borders (i.e. to govern itself)

3

Internal sovereignty

A state's monopoly on the legitimate use of force within its own borders

4

External sovereignty

A state's rights to perform its function without external interference from other states (i.e. autonomy) (Principle of Noninterference)

5

Empire

Had no defined territory or population

6

Dates of the 30 Years War

1618-1648

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Date of Martin Luther's 95 Theses

1517

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Date of Peace of Westphalia

1648

9

Why was the state successful?

State-like entities were the most successful at waging war because of a taxation system and standing armies

10

Nationalism and states

In the 19th and 20th centuries, there was a common idea that evert nation should have their own state

11

Juridical statehood

How a state is recognized by the international community

12

Empirical statehood

How a state functions in reality (i.e. does it really have sovereignty)

13

Purpose of theory

Diagnosis: simplifying a complex world
Prediction: what to expect
Prescription: what action should be taken
Evaluation: was a policy successful

14

Theory

An explanation for why or how outcomes occur

15

Unifying Themes of Classical Liberalism

Optimism about human nature, faith in human reason, variable-sum game, belief in progress and cooperation

16

Sociological liberalism

Transnationalism and a sense of shared community fosters cooperation and peace

17

Interdependence liberalism

(commercial peace) Growing flows of trade and capitalism results in economic interdependence, increasing the costs of war

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Institutional liberalism

International institution facilitate cooperation between states

19

Republican liberalism

(democratic peace) Shared values between democracies and the consent of the people to go to war means that democracies rarely go to war with each other

20

Blows to liberalism

WWI: interdependence hadn't stopped the war (interdependence liberalism)
WWII: League of Nations didn't stop the war (institutional liberalism)

21

Unifying themes of Classical Realism

Pessimism about human nature, people are naturally selfish and power seeking and states are the same, and the international system is anarchic

22

Anarchy

The absence of a higher authority with the ability to effectively regulate state behavior

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Founders of realism

Thucydides, Machiavelli, and Hobbes

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Thucydides

Ancient Greek historian who wrote the Melian Dialogue: Athens invaded Melos despite their appeal to morality so he concluded that global politics is about power

25

Machiavelli

States practice public morality, where following private morality rules may be unethical because it hurts the survival of the state

26

Hobbes

The state of nature is the state of war because there is no higher authority

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Neorealism themes

International system is anarchic, great powers are the main actors, states are unitary and rational and so value security, there is a hierarchy of power, and the international system is uncertain

28

Unitary actor

Each state has one set of primary interests

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Security dilemma

One country's efforts to increase its own security can make other countries less secure

30

Self-help

Countries can only rely on themselves

31

Levels of Analysis

Individual: looking at leaders
State: looking at the state's political system (democracy)
System: looking at the state's place on the hierarchy of power

32

Offensive Realism

Mearsheimer: the only reliable path to power is to gain as much as possible; power maximization

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Defensive Realism

Waltz: it is better to seek the appropriate amount of power to maintain a balance

34

Mearsheimer's 5 assumptions

1. international system is anarchic
2. great powers possess offensive military capability
3. there is uncertainty
4. survival is the primary goal
5. great powers are rational actors

35

Motivations for constructivism

Neorealism is too simple, empirical mismatches in history, advances in science, importance of ideology, culture, ideas, and human agency

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Unifying themes of constructivism

Emphasizes social construct of reality, ideational rather than material view, emphasis on culture, ideology, and social interaction

37

IR theories on anarchy

Liberalist: believe in anarchy but believe we can mitigate it
Realist: anarchy is a given
Constructivist: anarchy is what people think it is

38

Systemic constructivism

the interaction between states influences each state's identity and behavior

39

Domestic constructivism

Looking inside the state at histories, ideologies, culture, and ideas influences state identity and behavior

40

Wendt: cultures of anarchy

Hobbesian: states see each other as enemies
Lockean: states see each other as rivals
Kantian: states see each other as friends

41

Logic of Appropriateness

Finnemore: international system sets the norms that instruct states on how to behave to be accepted and civilized

42

Norm

a collective understanding of the proper behavior of actors

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Measuring norms

Specificity: clarity
Durability: how long and how well its been enforced
Concordance: do all actors agree it's a norm

44

State system

Politically organized human grouping which occupy distinct territories and exercise a measure of independence from each other (first seen in Hellas 500-100 BC)

45

State values

States exist to uphold these values: security, freedom, order, justice, welfare