Flashcards in MIDTERM Deck (78):
focused or centred on men.
the interconnected nature of social categorizations such as race, class, and gender as they apply to a given individual or group, regarded as creating overlapping and interdependent systems of discrimination or disadvantage.
relating to more than one branch of knowledge
liberals believe in the human capacity to ______ and to be _________
Name 3 key beliefs of liberalism
freedom of choice
everyone should have equal rights and opportunities
With which branch of feminist thought is Mary Wollstonecraft associated? What was she thinking about?
liberal feminism; women's role in society - rights, rationality, and opportunity only applied to men
Name 3 basic tenets of 20th century liberal feminism
1. sameness of men and women (notions of difference are due to gender roles)
2. meritocracy and equal opportunity (everyone should have opportunity to earn money/status by a job well done)
3. all rational beings should have freedom of choice
"glass ceiling" is associated with which branch of feminist thought
what was the goal of second wave liberal feminism
inclusion of women in existing institutions
liberal feminists advocate for __________ rather than _________ of patriarchal systems and institutions
What are a two criticisms of liberal feminism
based heavily on meritocracy
not intersectional (white, middle class)
When/at what point does Engels argue women's oppression began?
when state systems enforced private property
According to Marxist feminists, what is the root of women's oppression?
in socialist feminism, there is no ________ without _________, and no _________ without __________.
no women’s liberation without socialism, and no socialism without women’s liberation
What is the source of women's oppression according to socialist feminism?
patriarchal capitalism (duel systems)
According to socialist feminists, Capitalist patriarchy oppresses ____ ______ differently from _______ ______.
women workers; men workers
What did Marxist and Socialist feminists lobby for?
a wage for housework
What are 3 concerns of socialist feminists?
value of unpaid labour in the home
division of unpaid labour in the home
equalization of child-rearing responsibilities
When did radical feminism begin to grow?
during the 2nd wave
According to radical feminists, the state and the family emerge from what?
According to radical feminists, what is the source of women's oppression?
What are two key concepts or tenets of radical feminism?
the personal is political
Which branch of feminist thought argues that women were the first oppressed group?
What is a goal of radical feminism?
to create a gynocentric culture
What are 4 main concerns of the radical feminist movement?
violence against women
lack of autonomy over own body (birth control, sexual assault treatment, and abortion)
What are 4 problems with radical feminism?
overgeneralization/homogenization of women's experiences
not intersectional enough (race/class)
What branch of feminist theory has challenged the universal category of “woman”
anti-racist feminist theory
what is personal homophobia?
personal beliefs and prejudices
what is interpersonal homophobia?
harassment and individual discrimination - involves individual behaviours based on those personal beliefs (when attitudes or fears of lesbian or gay folks are enacted)
what is institutional homophobia?
the ways that governments, organizations, some religions, businesses and other institutions discriminate against people on the basis of their sexual orientation or gender identity
what is cultural homophobia/heterosexism?
societal values and “norms” that privilege heterosexuality over all other forms of gender expression and sexual orientation
homophobia and transphobia are the result of ____________ and ____________.
According to Kimmel (2015), what does a man need to do/be in order to be a "real man"?
According to Mamula's analysis of "Friends," what sort of reaction does socially sanctioned homophobia provoke?
tends to avoid provoking either aversion or anger, and instead prompts the viewer to be swept away by the hilarity of the situation
According to Mamula's analysis of "Friends," what does socially sanctioned homophobia remind us?
that heterosexuality is the norm, and anything outside this norm can be ridiculed and marginalized
How does a Marxist perspective understand the family?
as an economic unit
What is parental dimorphism?
opposite sex parenting—belief that species (humans) exhibit different characteristics beyond the differences in their sexual organs
what happens to women if they are "bad mothers"?
they are ridiculed, ostracized, scrutinized
When did the standards for motherhood become impossibly high and essentially unachievable?
after the industrial revolution
Who is usually blamed when a child misbehaves?
What is an example of a mother being blamed for her child's behaviour?
Paul Bernardo (Scarborough killer) - journalists wrote damning pieces on his mother doing a poor job raising him, scrutinizing her ability to mother him, subtly blaming her for her son becoming a sexual predator
When did the cult of domesticity begin to grow?
after industrial revolution
Why did the cult of domesticity begin to grow after the industrial revolution?
families were able to survive on one income; domesticity was seen as a way to legitimate women’s existence in the private realm
What is a political consequence or symptom of the cult of domesticity?
the role of “good motherhood” was part of political campaigns of the 19th century
What was one of the main tasks for mothers in the cult of domesticity?
moral education of children
How was the cult of domesticity a racist and classist construction?
women of colour often assumed to be ‘bad mothers’; poor women targeted
working class women could not be full-time mothers, and therefore would have their mothering questioned, might be labelled as bad mothers
what was the belief behind the sixties scoop?
Belief that First Nations women could not be good mothers or were bad mothers - that they lacked the skills, resources, education necessary to be good mothers
During the 60s scoop, approximately how many indigenous children were apprehended from their families and sent to foster homes or to be adopted by non-indigenous families?
What does the ideal mother look like in the West?
naturally, always, and immediately present to care for her children; self-sacrificing
What are two examples/symptoms of the rise of intensive mothering?
1. a new crop of specialists and experts who offered women the ‘latest’ and best way to raise children
2. domestic science (home economics) courses in schools to educate young women on how to be good housewives and mothers
What were some beliefs behind the rise of intensive mothering?
socioeconomic class-based focus: young working-class women were thought to have less natural ability to be good mothers
Why is the practice of intensive mothering biased toward middle class women and against working class women?
requires full time attention; difficult to hold paid labour and intensively mother
What is an example of intensive mothering?
the debate around how long a mother should breastfeed her child
According to Hays (1996), what is the assumption underlying intensive mothering?
the assumption that the child absolutely requires consistent nurture by a single primary caretaker and that the mother is the best person for the job
What school of thought is responsible for the term, "the feminization of poverty"?
What percentage of the world's poor do women represent?
what is the LICO?
an income threshold at which families are expected to spend 20% more than the average family on food, shelter and clothing
Persons and families living below the LICO are considered to be living in _________ ___________
How many women in Canada live in poverty? What is this as a ratio?
2.4 million - 1 in 7 women
Feminization of poverty has to do with a rise in what?
female headed households
What are 3 reasons for the feminization of poverty?
sexual division of unpaid labour
nature of paid labour (labour force segregation)
discrimination in the workplace
What are the 3 central life-shaping processes?
production, reproduction, distribution
What is production?
paid work, the security of our position, saving for the future, our relationship to the economy
also refers to unpaid domestic labour, volunteering, etc.
without _____ ______, our ________ could not happen
unpaid labour; production
what is reproduction?
social reproduction of dependents—children, parents, relatives, partners as well as the biological reproduction of children
What is distribution?
how services are rendered and distributed
Who does what for whom? How are government services provided? Who receives which services?
what are 2 examples of instrumental care duties
housework, meal preparation,
what is affective care work
kinship work (e. writing and sending birthday cards, gifts), undertaking the psychological responsibilities for others, phone calls, etc.
What tool did Waring use to assess women's work?
time use surveys
since the 1970s, what ratio of part time employees are women
7 in 10
What concept was put forth by Gazzo (2010)
What are the explained and unexplained of the wage gap?
explained = difference in experience, education
unexplained = due to discrimination
even when comparing women’s full-time, full-year work to men’s full-time, full-year work, women still make just over __% of what men make
Which two provinces have proactive pay equity laws?
ontario and quebec
what differs ontario and quebec's proactive pay equity laws from other provinces?
covers jobs not just in the public sector but also private sector
What is one specific way that proactive pay equity laws help women?
these laws don’t require women to confront their employers about pay inequity
Name the four axioms of masculinity
no sissy stuff
be a big wheel
be a sturdy oak
give em hell