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What does ASHA say about the role of SLP's in the development of literacy?

SLP's play a critical and direct role in the development of literacy for those with communication disorders... understanding of language acquisition and developing individualized programming prepare them for roles related to literacy.


What are some of the appropriate roles that SLP's can take regarding literacy?

Prevent written language problems by fostering emergent literacy & language acquisition.
ID children at risk for problems.
Assess reading/writing.
Advocate for effective literacy practice.
Provide assistance to Gen Ed teachers.


How are SLP's different from a reading specialist?

Reading specialists follow the curriculum.


Can you read without reading comprehension?

No. Grandfather/grandson reading example (grandson reads foreign language, grandfather interprets) with neither actual reading. Cannot have one without the other.


What is the simple view of reading?

Reading at top of triangle, with word recognition (including real and non real words) and listening comprehension (narrative comprehension and receptive language skills) below. Both components should be considered, and SLP's have knowledge in each area.


How do we know how to read words that aren't words?

We have seen letter correspondence in other words, and tap into letter sound knowledge.


What is needed for word recognition?

Phonological awareness (awareness of sounds in language independent of meaning)
Concept of alphabetic principle (letters rep sounds)
Orthographic (letter) knowledge
Lots of practice!


What allows you to build a mental model of a story?

Listening comp


What are listening comp questions?

Literal interpretation: Info directly from text (what did the bear eat?)
Inferences: Connect with what is found in text (why was bear smelling ground?)
Sequential info: (what did the bear do after...)


What are the components of listening comp?

Vocabulary, background knowledge, 'running' inferences


When do students work on word rec? On listening comp?

Earlier grades work on word recognition (rhyming, word families, sight words, spelling tests), and third grade works on book reports, reflections, journals, essay, persuasive pieces)


Does language ensure reading or vice versa?

Neither- language is innate, reading is not.


What are structural differences between language and reading?

Salience (print is more salient- books v audiobooks- can reread, self-pace...)
Shift in focus occurs sin middle school- some individual differences


What are situational differences between language and reading?

You lose cues when relying on print (prosody, gestures, repairs, facial expressions, pauses)


What are form differences between language and reading?

Tied to situational differences Paralinguistic features (voice quality, pitch, production manner) are lost in writing
Ex: Nixon transcript v audio


What are functional differences between language and reading?

Writing to: record facts, reflect on issues, give more info


What are vocab differences between language and reading?

Literate lexicon (thus, therefore, etc.) only in writing, not conversation


What are grammatical differences between language and reading?

More grammatically and lexically dense with distinctively organized structure- provide transitions for topic changes


What are context differences between language and reading?

Context can assist with interpretation of word in texts, and help a child integrate new information with their background knowledge- BUT context alone can't be used to ID words. "use the context clues" or "sound it out" not effective- they would if they could.


How do cognitive skills, motivation and attention affect reading and language?

Attention and motivation are more important for reading! Cognitive skills are important for both


What underlies word reading skill? What underlies listening comprehension?

Decoding; word recognition


Where does dyslexia fall in the word recognition x listening comp chart?

POOR word recognition; GOOD listening comprehension- cognition is intact, and they have the capacity to read, but they cannot


How do we give children with dyslexia IQ tests?

Non-verbal IQ tests with problem solving tasks etc.


Dyslexia is....
-___ based problem
-What kind of disorder?
-What is it's origin?
-When does it occur?
-How common?
-How does it present?
-Is it responsive?

Phonological processing disorder that carries over into other domains.
Neurobiological in origin.
Present from birth and experienced for life.
More common than any other learning disability!
Can be annoying to severely limiting.
Yes, to expert, informed instruction.


When can we tell that children are struggling with phonological processing?

Kindergarten! But legislation waits until 3rd grade...


What are three characteristics of dyslexia? Why is this surprising?

Weaknesses in word reading, phonemic decoding and spelling.
It exists in the presence of normal cognition!


When adults have compensated for dyslexia, shows itself in...

Slow reading, poor spelling, and difficulty with novel and complex phonological forms.


What are some common misconceptions of dyslexia?

It is seeing letters backwards, a visual issue, indicative of gifted status,, responsive to eye tracking...


Phonological processing deficit in dyslexia is seen in a variety of...

Manifests itself differently across language- English is word reading, Dutch is word reading fluency, German is spelling...


Does English have clear orthography?

No- opaque- not a 1:1 letter correspondence.


What do phonological processing problems associated with dyslexia also impact?

Oral language- studies even show that oral language deficits exist in kids with dyslexia even prior to school


What can happen if a person is diagnosed with dyslexia later on?

If they cannot read, haven't gotten new vocabulary, which means no new syntax exposure...


How is dyslexia typically diagnosed? By who?

Includes those with poor reading performance, excludes those who have IQ equal to their word reading skills.


What are some criticisms of the IQ-performance discrepancy criteria for dyslexia?

How can we alternately diagnose now?

IQ and word reading aren't typically tested until 3rd grade, delays early identification, IQ and word reading are linked (less knowledge= lower IQ, IQ scores underestimate intelligence with those with dyslexia...

Response to Intervention RTI may be alternative way...


Explain RTI

Tier 1: prevention, screening, child learns ata grade level
Tier 2: Lag behind peers, weak progress on screening measures, require intervention in group
Tier 3: Lag behind by one or more years and demonstrate weak progress, require intensive intervention (Special Ed/Impaired)


How does RTI help diagnose kids with dyslexia?

Measures early pre-reading skills, monitor progress in learning skills, those who aren't learning at same rate will get services. No IQ scores!


Where does a poor comprehender/language impairment fall in the word recognition x listening comprehension chart?

GOOD word recognition and POOR listening comprehension.


What percent of poor readers are "poor comprehenders?" What are their deficits?

5-10%- NOT phonological processing, but... semantics, syntax, working memory, higher level language processing


Where does a mixed reading disability fall in the word recognition x listening comprehension chart?

POOR word recognition, POOR listening comprehension.


Can we test reading comprehension in a robust way in young children?

Nope- not there yet. More likely to use something like "the boy has a cap on his ___" In 4th grade, the way we test changes and will show through more- something like "the paint is full, Susan will use it to ___ the walls).


What is the golden rule of assessment for poor reading??

Assess both word reading and listening comprehension to determine underlying cause.


What are early signs of risk for dyslexia? What isn't?

Family history in reading or language impairment
Difficulty learning letter names/sounds
Consistent use of unusual or non developmental errors
Multisyllabic words are difficult...
Reversing letters (typical until 2nd grade), common errors on long words (aminal)


A diagnosis of dyslexia is only useful if...

The person receives the services they need!


What are stages of reading development by grade?

Birth-5: pre-reading
1-2: decoding
2-3: fluency
4-8: read for new meaning
HS: multiple views
College: construction


What are the two theories of reading development?

Stage theory
Self-teaching hypothesis


What are the 3 stages of Stage theory?

1. Logographic- marks end of emergent literacy and beginning of alphabetic/ph phase, recognizing environmental print, no use of letter sound knowledge. NEED controversial.
2. Alphabetic- letter-sound correspondence, connection between phonemes in spoken language and symbols, spelling...
3. Orthographic stage: sight word recognition, does not require phonological conversion.


What is the self teaching hypothesis? What are 3 concepts?

If one part (phonology, orthography, literacy) is impaired, it cannot work.
Phonological decoding is based on individual items (not stages- exposure), lexicalization (words grow from letter and sounds into meaningful units within lexicon), independent contributions of phonology and orthography (exposure to print, letters, patterns...)


What is emergent literacy?

Set of skills between birth and reading/writing that lead to reading- comprehension skills (vocab, print concept knowledge) and decoding skills (phonological awareness, alphabet knowledge)


What are outside in processes? Inside out processes?

Language, narrative, print conventions, emergent reading (COMPREHENSION)

Knowledge of graphemes, phonological awareness, syntactic awareness, phoneme grapheme correspondence, emergent writing...


Children with SLI are at an increased risk for...

Emergent literacy deficits!


Children with comorbid impairments are likely to have weakened...

Phonological memory!


Should we assume risk by studies?

Nope- always conduct individual evals for children's emergent literacy.


What is phonological awareness?
How do we measure it?
What do good/poor PA lead to?

Sensitivity to the sound structure of a word
Rhyming, blending, deletion tasks
Good readers/poor readers


Can you shut your eyes and still have phonological awareness?

Yes, sounds only!


What is the phonological awareness continuum?

Rhyming, sentence segmentation, syllable segmentation/blending, ID of initial/final phonemes, manipulation of final phonemes

LAST two are phonemic awareness- are thinking of phonemes within words.


If it is phonemic awareness, it's also ...

Is the reverse true?

Phonological awareness!



What is phonemic awareness? Phonics?

Manipulation of phonemes only (not syllables or words)

EYES OPEN tasks- connection to letters.


If a child has greater phonics skills than phonemic awareness...

If opposite...

Auditory processing? Prob not dyslexia.

Sounds associations lacking, how is alphabet knowledge? Might not be ready to pair sounds to letter or have not been exposed...


Why are phonemic awareness and phonics important?

Helps kids develop alphabetic knowledge, notice that letters represent sounds in words, and become flexible decoders and decode irregular words...


Why is phonemic awareness difficult for some kids?

Phonemes are coarticulated as part of a syllable-
ex: cat v can vowel production


How do we treat phonological awareness in kids past 2nd grade?

As a focused skill directly related to reading words, in conjunction with letters, and at age appropriate level (how many syllables in archeology? say history without /t/)


As vocabulary grows...

Representations become more phonemically detailed, child can differentiate words in growing lexicon, and .... vocab grows!!


What is neighborhood density?

Lexical characteristic that influences performance on working memory & phonological awareness tasks (add, delete, sub phonemes)- if many similar words, dense. if few similar words, sparse!


Should dense of sparse words be easier to respond to on a phonological awareness task?

Dense because based on lexical restructuring model because there are a lot of friendly neighbors to support knowledge and phonemic representation of that word...


What is the dense advantage in typical, LI, and SSD? What does this point to?

Advantage for TD, no advantage for LI, and no advantage for SSD

Differences in lexical organization and working memory


What is word frequency?

Is Phonological awareness better for high or low frequency words?

Number of times a word is heard in ambient language



Intervention for phonological awareness must be...

Explicit, structured/sequential, multi sensory (auditory, visual, kinesthetic), provide practice opportunities.


In order for phonological awareness intervention to be effective, it must be integrated with...

Knowledge of orthography! Must learn how letters are related to sounds (alphabetic principle) Will blend into phonics instruction...


What are types of responses?

Recognition- Show me... (pics, multiple choice)
Production- Tell me what word...


When can phonemic awareness activities be done?

Circle time, attendance, read aloud, flexible groups...


What are service delivery models for phonological awareness?

Incorporated into tx (look for risk factors of reading)
Training teachers (go into classroom, gradually pull out)