Minerals Flashcards Preview

GEO1111 > Minerals > Flashcards

Flashcards in Minerals Deck (31):
1

What is a mineral?

-Naturally occurring
-Inorganic (no C-H bonds)
-Solid
-Ordered atomic arrangement (ie. crystalline)
-Specific chemical formula

2

Minerals are known as

The building blocks of life

3

Ionic Bonding is present in:

-oxides
-sulphates
-carbonates

4

Covalent Bonding is found in:

-native copper
-silver
-gold

5

crystal growth is inhibited by:

lack of:
-space
-time

6

Glass vs Crystal

Crystal: ordered structure
Glass: disordered structure

7

Diamond

Mineral

8

Graphite

mineral

9

polymorphs

same chemical composition, different crystal structures.
(ie. diamond and graphite)

10

sugar

non-mineral

11

coal

non-mineral

12

volcanic glass

non-mineral

13

shell

mineral

14

teeth and bone (apatite)

mineral

15

Covalent/metallic bonds

electron sharing

16

ionic bonds

electron transfer

17

True/False: beautiful crystals occur naturally?

False. More often, crystals nucleate and grow quickly, bumping into one another in the process. (Grains).

18

Glass

-Occurs when crystals don't have time to nucleate
-Develop when cooling occurs rapidly

19

Silicates form ___% of rock-forming minerals (crust)

92%

20

Key characteristic of silicates

Silicon tetrahedron backbone

21

Types of silicates

-Isolated tetrahedra (olivine (8%))
-Single chain (pyroxene (11%))
-Double chain (amphibole (5%))
-Sheets (mica (5%))
-Framework (feldspar (51%); quartz(12%))

22

Non-silicates make up ___% of the crust

8%

23

Non-silicates

-carbonates
-oxide minerals
-sulphate minerals
-halide minerals

24

Physical properties of minerals

-Hardness
-Cleavage
-Luster
-Colour
-Density
-Crystal habit

25

Hardness

How difficult a mineral is to scratch

26

Cleavage

-How a mineral breaks apart (smooth or jagged/wavy)
-indicates planes of internal heterogeneities

27

Luster

metallic or non-metallic

28

Colour

Note: impurities can affect colour, so on its own, colour is not a reliable way to classify

29

Crystal habit

Description of the crystal's general shape

30

Mineral diversity spiked following what historic event?

The Great Oxidation Event

31

nearly 1/2 of the minerals present in the crust arose due to _____ and _____ of other, pre-existing minerals in an oxidized environment
Example?

a) oxidation
b)hydrolysis (weathering)
Example: rust --> oxidation of iron