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Flashcards in Solar system composition Deck (39):
1

Why does stellar nucleosynthesis make elements only up to iron

Elements after that require more energy put in than you get out

2

What kinds of achondrites are there

Iron rich and basaltic

3

What are the big four terrestrial building elements

O, Fe, Mg, Si

4

What is the total mass of the asteroid belt between mars and jupiter

4% of the moons mass

5

Why Jovian planets are further away from the sun

since composed of volatile gases, they stay where it is cold so they can make ice from the those volatile gases

6

Define escape velocity

The minimum energy needed for a atom to escape the gravitational pull of a planet

7

What two factors discussed in class can influence the escape velocity of an atom

The heat of the planet, and the mass of the planet

8

Define homogenous accretion

The metal core of earth formed by separation of metal from silicate rock

9

Define impact hypothesis

Huge asteroid hits earth, debris flung up accumulate into the formation of the moon

10

Define the Kuiper belt

belt of dusty ice that extends beyond neptune

11

Why did the earth segregate into layers?

The molten planet separated into relative density and chemical affinity

12

Define atmophile elements

Gas and liquid loving elements. Contain water, CO2, and nitrogen. found mostly in sea and atmosphere

13

Define lithophile elements

Reside in silicate materials. Found primarily in crust and mantle. contain Si, Mg, O, Ca, and Al.

14

Define the siderphile elements

Prefer to be in metallic state. Include iron, nickel, gold, silver, and platinum. Found primarily in the earths core.

15

Define chalcophile elements

Sulfur- (Ore) loving. substantial overlap with siderphile elements.

16

What element can reside in lithophiles, siderphiles, and chalcophiles?

Iron

17

Define magmaphile elements

Elements with very large size and weight that do not combine to form silicates. Therefore, dissociate into magma when partial melting occurs. Found primarily, however, in the crust.

18

Define heterogenous accretion

Theory that the iron-rich meteorites accreted first, forming core, and the silicate meteorites accreted after, forming mantle

19

What is peculiar about the moon? (4)

1. Very low density
2. very large (larger than mercury)
3. almost perfect circular orbit
4. oxygen isotope signature is identical to earth

20

What is the capture hypothesis

Earth and moon were two planets with similar orbits, earth captured moon to an orbit around it

21

What is the fission hypothesis

states that a piece of moten earth blebbed off and formed moon

22

What is the mini solar system hypothesis (co-accretion process)

The moon formed from left over debris that orbited around earth

23

what was likely the compositionof the first crust?

basaltic

24

over time, due to periods of partial melting of the basaltic crust, what would have been the composition of the knew continental crust?

granite

25

What is the lunar maria

the black, relatively uncratered areas of the moons surface

26

What are the lunar highlands

Areas of the moon that are cratered

27

What does the amount of cratering on the moon tell about its age?

The more craters, the older it is

28

What has not happened on the moon surface in 2.5 billion years

surface renewal processes

29

How were the sea and atmosphere formed?

volcanic degassing, comet impacts, and core-mantle segregation

30

The asteroid belt contains

asteroids
b) refractory elements
c) volatile elements
d) radioactive elements

31

The Kuiper belt contains

a) comets
b) refractory elements
c) volatile elements
d) radioactive elements

32

Terrestrial planets include

Mercury, Venus, Mars, and Earth

33

Jovian planets are larger than terrestrial planets because

) there was more solid matter in the outer solar system
b) the temperature was lower in the outer solar system
c) they accreted both ices and refractory elements

34

The Moon and Mercury lack significant atmospheres primarily because

they are too small

35

The Earth’s core consists primarily of

siderophile elements

36

One argument against heterogeneous accretion of the Earth (i.e., metals first, then
silicates) is that

achondrites are younger than chondrites

37

Which of the following statements is false regarding the impact hypothesis of Moon
origin?

The hypothesis helps explain the scarcity of lithophile elements in the Moon

38

How do we know that planetary bombardment stopped 4 billion years ago

The moon has places 4 billion years old that aren't bombarded

39

Why couldn't all of earths water have come from comets

The chemistry of hydrogen isotopes in most comets is dissimilar to earth isotopes of hydrogen. More likely a chondritic source