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Flashcards in Misc Deck (23)
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1

Picture.fragment completion task

People seen picture should recognize it with just some lines
4 y as good as older

2

Memory quality depends on

- The ability to understand the (temporal structure of the)
experience (e.g., having a cognitive sense of self);
- Symbolic understanding (e.g., use of gestures);
- Language proficiency (e.g., verbal rehearsal);
- Metacognition (e.g., knowing when to use certain
mnemonic strategies).

3

Explicit memory 4 & 7

From 5 active use of scripts, at 4 only if events salient, at 7 clear distinction between novel event and old script

4

Factors determining phonological loop capacity for words

word length, age, articulation rate

5

Picture confusion task

At age 5, working memory route from mostly visual to mostly phonological WM.
Phonological confusability/similarity effect - Easier to remember words further away from each other (homophones, nonhomophones) -> 3-5 does not show this effect
Picture confusion task - Recall order of pictures
5 and 10 y olds
verbal rehearsal: long named pictures harder to remember (word length effect)
visuospatial rehearsall: more similar pictures harder to remember

6

Maintenance and Manipulation

Different trajectories for both WM functions
Experiment
Children 8-12, Adolescents 13-17 and Adults 18-25
Either Recall Main or Reversed Main + Mani
Children are worse than the other
Neuronal: All use Ventral for Maintenance
Children less dorsal than other 2 groups

7

WM types (3)

Modality:
• Visuospatial & phonological
•Process:
• Maintaining information & manipulating information
•Ability:
• Capacity & updating

8

WM types for spanboard and nback

spanboard: visuospatial modality, maintaining, capacity
nback: visuo/phono modality, maintaining, updating

9

Analogies vs Syllogism

Analogy - inductive, from special to general, not logic but indication
Children from 3 y, before that too abstract, A to B like C to (questionmark)
Syllogism - deductive, from general premises to special cases,
5-6, verbal and play group, verbal group just for premises that are true, play group for almost all true,
play group also possible for 4y

10

Berkeley's Principles

1. Priority: an event can cause another if it happens prior to it and not subsequent to it Jack in the box 3y
2. Covariation: cause regularly and predictably covaries with effect Light switches, 3 y able to
3. Temporal Contiguity: Cause and effect are contiguous in time, box green, orange with tube, if connected to other tube the first orange marble is chosen if no causal reason why marble would activate they choose the orange one, from 4y
4. Similarity of Causes and effect: Big button makes big noice, blue color makes water blue, younger than 10 conflicting, older use covariation consistently, if conflict with temporal contiguity, only the 6y had a problem

11

Hypothesis testing (2 experiments)

6-8y Mouse experiment, inclusive, conclusive testing,
test for confirmation bias, 2 mice, 2 houses in which house the cheese
most children choose small house/ inclusive testing
Hypothesis testing with covariation, 4-6
does green or red make the teeth rott?
If 100% covariation all children right
If imperfect covariation (more reallife) only the 6y olds

12

Balance scale task

Multi cause reasoning 1. Same weight? 2. If same weight, distance 3. Random testing 4. systematic testing
5-6 rule 1
9 also rule 2

13

Phonological awareness

Important parts: a) syllable awareness, b) onset rhyme awareness, c) phoneme awareness
a) tapping task, tap the number of syllables right, you need 6 in a row to be counted, at 4, 50% at 6, 90%-> syllable awareness before they learn to read
counting task, puppet task deletion task
b) also prior to reading.
Spoken rhyme recognition, spoken rhyme production, Onset rhyme blending, rhyme oddity task (for onset, medial, rime sound)
better for rime than onset.
c) after reading, not natural, rate of development better for orthographically transparent languages
tapping out, counting task

14

Training phonological awareness

Mind Hawthorne effect and make controlgroup
Dependent variable: Oddity task
4 groups of worst at task before, 2y training
1. phonological awareness with picture, 2. phonological awareness with picture and plastic letters, like "at" for cat, rat, etc. 3. Active control: picture sorting by semantic category 4. Unseen
1. 4m ahead of 3, but not significant
2 8 m ahead of reading, 12 month ahead of spelling of active control, 24 months ahead of passive control
Group 2 is best

15

Dyslexia

Problem phonological awareness, read less, compared at 10 to 7y worse in all oddity tasks, bad at
phonological based stm (digit-span test)
and bad at rapid automatized naming task
Less brain activity in reading area, dysfunction in left hemisphere, after training more activity in left
hawthorne only increase in motivational

16

Tripple code model

1Visually based coding in fusiform (also recognizing words
2Language based system for facts -> overlearned knowledge, multiplication tables, days, weeks
3General number sense in parietal lobe
number sense and subitizing predict maths success

16

Tripple code model

1Visually based coding in fusiform (also recognizing words
2Language based system for facts -> overlearned knowledge, multiplication tables, days, weeks
3General number sense in parietal lobe
number sense and subitizing predict maths success

17

Number sense and subitizing

Also called Analog Magnitude Representation, imprecise approximation, follows Weber's law (ratio sensitive, number higher or lower than 5? 9 easier than 6)
Small numbers up to 4, instant recognition, still Weber's law: 3-4 y Innate as ability to spot larger number of dots at a row does not depend on counting skills, better at 1:2 ratio than 2:3

17

Number sense and subitizing

Also called Analog Magnitude Representation, imprecise approximation, follows Weber's law (ratio sensitive, number higher or lower than 5? 9 easier than 6)
Small numbers up to 4, instant recognition, still Weber's law: Innate as ability to spot larger number of dots at a row does not depend on counting skills, better at 1:2 ratio than 2:3

18

Counting

Language abilities and one-on-one correspondence,
acquired (how to pronounce, what exact magnitude)
Cardinality - All sets with the same number are qualitively equivalent
Ordinality - Numbers come at an ordered scale of magnitude
Language of count sequence need both, counting is PRECISE

19

Give a number task

2-4 y
Can you give me a number (1-6) of dinosaurs? *If wrong* ooh but he wanted e.g. 2
Children were "Grabbiers" - Handful, know that more than one
and "Counters"
Shift from grabbing to counting at 3.5

20

Dyscalculia

Problem with counting and general number sense, recognizing numbers, estimating and recognizing pattern
Difficulty in intuitive and cultural system (symbolic, nonsymbolic)

21

Causal reasoning and Expectation violation

Preschoolers able, reverse able as well although 3 year old get distracted by salience of particular causal effect
Exp vio: from 7.5 to 9 m look longer