Miscellaneous 1st Midterm (Ben) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Miscellaneous 1st Midterm (Ben) Deck (41):
1

What are the arteries which supply blood to the various parts of the meninges?

Anterior Meninges > Anterior Ethmoid A.

Middle Meninges > Maxillary A.

Posterior Meninges > Ascending Pharyngeal A.

2

What is the name and function of the arachnoidal extensions into the dura mater (pushing out into small grooves on the internal surface of the calvaria)?

Arachnoidal Granules of Pacchioni

- filter CSF and return it to the venous blood

3

What is the name of the double meningeal fold between the two brain hemispheres?

What layer(s) create the fold?

Falx Cerebri

- the dura mater

4

What are the 4/5 dural specializations?

  1. Falx Cerebri
  2. Tentorium + Falx Cerebelli
  3. Sellar Diaphragm
  4. Dural Sinuses

5

What are the cranial nerves (and CN branches) associated with the paired sinuses surrounding the sella turcica?

What order are they found in?

Cavernous Sinus Cranial Nerves

Externally (superior > inferior along sides of sinus):

  • N III - Oculomotor
  • N IV - Trochlear
  • N V/1 - Ophthalmic (from Trigeminal)
  • N V/2 - Maxillary (from Trigeminal)

Internally (through the sinus)

  • N VI - Abducens

6

What important artery runs through the cavernous sinus?

Internal Carotid Artery

7

What are the 5 parts of the internal carotid artery (in the direction of blood flow)?

 

4 parts mentioned in Thieme, 1 only seen in a Lendvai .ppt

 

  1. Cervical Part - in lateral pharyngeal space
  2. Petrous Part - in carotid canal of petrous temporal bone
  3. Cavernous Part - in cavernous sinus
  4. Carotid Siphon - curve in cavernous segment
  5. Cerebral Part - in chiasmatic cistern (subarachnoid)

8

What is the important branch of the petrous part of the ICA?

Caroticotympanic Arteries

9

What is the important branch of the cavernous part of the ICA?

Inferior Hypophyseal Artery

10

What are the branches of the cerebral part of the ICA?

  1. Ophthalmic Artery
  2. Superior Hyphophyseal Artery
  3. Posterior Communicating Artery
  4. Anterior Choroidal Artery

 

Remember "Coach" - COCH (Communicating, Ophthalmic, Choroidal, Hypophyseal) 

11

#1

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Anterior Communicating Artery

12

#2

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Anterior Cerebral Artery

13

#3

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Middle Cerebral Artery

14

#4

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Internal Carotid Artery

15

#5

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Posterior Communicating Artery

16

#6

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Posterior Cerebral Artery

17

#7

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Superior Cerebellar Artery

18

#8

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Basilar Artery

19

#9

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Inferior Anterior Cerebellar Artery

20

#10

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Vertebral Artery

21

#11

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Inferior Posterior Cerebellar Artery

22

#12

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Anterior Spinal Arteries

23

What nerve is found at the junction of 8 and 6?

Q image thumb

CN III - Oculomotor

24

What are the 5 recesses of the III ventricle

  1. Triangular
  2. Optic/Supraoptic
  3. Infundibular
  4. Pineal
  5. Suprapineal

25

What leads from the ventricular system to the largest cystern?

From which ventricle and what is the cystern's name?

Foramen of Magendie

- AKA median aperature

- from the fourth ventricle to the cysterna magna

26

What 3 important veins drain into the internal cerebral vein?

  1. Vein of Septum Pellucidum
  2. Thalamostriate Vein
  3. Superior Choroidal Vein

27

What artery supplies the choroid plexus of the lateral ventricles?

3rd ventricle?

4th ventricle?

Lateral: Anterior Choroidal (from ICA or Middle Cerebral A.)

Third: Posterior Choroidal (from Posterior Cerebral A.)

Fourth: Choroidal A. of Fourth Ventricle (from Posterior Inferior Cerebellar A.)

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28

How does CSF leave the lateral recesses of the 4th ventricle?

To what space?

Through the foramina of Luschka

into the Lateral Pontine or Pontocerebellar Cystern

29

What are the 4 important circumventricular organs (according to Altdorfer's lecture) ?

  1. Pineal Gland
  2. Neurohypophysis (Posterior Pituitary)
  3. Median Eminence (behind infundibulum [see picture], not in rhomboid fossa)
  4. Area Postrema ("vomiting center" of medulla oblongata)

 

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30

What general areas of the brain do each of the main cerebral branches of the circle of Willis supply?

​See picture below for better understanding.

 

  • Anterior Cerebral Artery - medial areas of the hemispheres + superior gyri
  • Middle Cerebral Artery - superfical/lateral areas of the hemispheres
  • Posterior Cerebral Artery - occipital lobe + inferior parts of hemispheres

A image thumb
31

What are the walls of the anterior horn of the lateral ventricles?

Lateral?

Medial?

Floor?

Anterior?

Roof?

Lateral: Head of Caudate Nucleus

Medial: Septum Pellucidum

Floor: Rostrum of CC

Anterior: Genu of CC

Roof: Body of CC

32

What are the walls of the central part of the lateral ventricles?

Floor?

Roof?

Medial?

Lateral?

Floor: Lamina Affixa on top of thalamus

Roof: Body of CC

Medial: Choroid Lamina Epithelialis attached to fornix

Lateral: Body of Caudate Nucleus

 

33

What are the walls of the posterior horn of the lateral ventricle?

Lateral?

All others generally?

Medial?

Floor?

Lateral: Tapetum of the CC

All others: Occipital White Matter

Medial: Radiation of CC (Forceps Major) and Calcar Avis (from Calcarine Fissure

Floor: Collateral Trigone (from Collateral Sulcus)

34

What are the walls of the inferior horn of the lateral ventricle?

Roof?

Lateral?

Floor?

Medial?

Roof/Lateral:

  • White Matter (Tapetum)
  • Tail of Caudate Nucleus (medially)
  • Stria Terminalis

Floor:

  • Hippocampus
  • Collateral Eminence (from collateral sulcus)

Medial:

  • Choroid Lamina Epithelialis (attached to Hippocampus/Stria Terminalis)

35

What are the walls of the 3rd ventricle?

Anterior?

Roof?

Posterior?

Floor?

Lateral?

Anterior:

  • Anterior Commissure
  • Fornix (columns)
  • Lamina terminalis

Roof:

  • Choroid Lamina Epithelialis

Posterior:

  • Posterior Commissure
  • Habenular Commissure

Floor:

  • Hypothalamus
  • Subthalamus

Lateral:

  • Thalamus
  • Hypothalamus

36

What are the walls of the 4th ventricle?

Roof (upper/apex/lower) ?

Floor?

 

Roof:

  • Upper: Superior Medullary Velum
  • Apex: Fastigium
  • Lower: Inferior Med. Velum, Nodule + Choroid Lamina Epithelialis

Floor:

  • Rhomboid Fossa

37

What is the metathalamus?

The vision and hearing centers (respectively) of the Lateral and Medial Geniculate Bodies.

 

(connected via brachii to the superior and inferior collicles, respectively)

38

Phylogenetic Distribution of the Cerebellum.

What parts constitute the Archicerebellum?

Paleocerebellum?

Neocerebellum?

Other names for these?

Archi/Vestibulocerebellum: Flocculonodular Lobe + Lingula

Paleo/Spinocerebellum: 

  • Anterior Lobe
  • Pyramid, Uvula and Anterior of Vermis
  • Central Parts of Posterior Lobe

Neo/Corticocerebellum:

  • Lateral Posterior Lobe
  • Most of Vermis

39

Describe blood supply to the spinal cord.

Hints...

1) Where does it originate from?

2) What contributes to it along the length of the cord?

3) What about blood supply to dorsal/ventral nerve roots?

  1. Vertebral Arteries give a single Anterior and paired Posterior Spinal Arteries  which run down the length of the SC
  2. Spinal Branches arise from intercostal, lumbar, cervical, thoracic and sacral arteries, giving Anterior/Posterior Segmental Medullary Arteries which feed into the anterior/posterior spinal arteries
  3. Anterior/Posterior Radicular Arteries from the spinal branches run along dorsal ventral roots + also supply peripheral portions of the horns

40

What are the extensions of pia mater from the spinal cord out to the arachnoid mater called?

How many are there?

The create a significant border in relation to CSF. What is it?

 

- denticulate ligaments

- 21

- Ventral to denticulate ligaments, CSF flows upward. Dorsal to them, it flows downward.

 

41

What is the name of the special diagonally cut section used to show the basal ganglia?

Flechsig section