What are the arteries which supply blood to the various parts of the meninges?
Anterior Meninges > Anterior Ethmoid A.
Middle Meninges > Maxillary A.
Posterior Meninges > Ascending Pharyngeal A.
What is the name and function of the arachnoidal extensions into the dura mater (pushing out into small grooves on the internal surface of the calvaria)?
Arachnoidal Granules of Pacchioni
- filter CSF and return it to the venous blood
What is the name of the double meningeal fold between the two brain hemispheres?
What layer(s) create the fold?
- the dura mater
What are the 4/5 dural specializations?
- Falx Cerebri
- Tentorium + Falx Cerebelli
- Sellar Diaphragm
- Dural Sinuses
What are the cranial nerves (and CN branches) associated with the paired sinuses surrounding the sella turcica?
What order are they found in?
Cavernous Sinus Cranial Nerves
Externally (superior > inferior along sides of sinus):
- N III - Oculomotor
- N IV - Trochlear
- N V/1 - Ophthalmic (from Trigeminal)
- N V/2 - Maxillary (from Trigeminal)
Internally (through the sinus)
- N VI - Abducens
What important artery runs through the cavernous sinus?
Internal Carotid Artery
What are the 5 parts of the internal carotid artery (in the direction of blood flow)?
4 parts mentioned in Thieme, 1 only seen in a Lendvai .ppt
Cervical Part - in lateral pharyngeal space
Petrous Part - in carotid canal of petrous temporal bone
Cavernous Part - in cavernous sinus
Carotid Siphon - curve in cavernous segment
Cerebral Part - in chiasmatic cistern (subarachnoid)
What is the important branch of the petrous part of the ICA?
What is the important branch of the cavernous part of the ICA?
Inferior Hypophyseal Artery
What are the branches of the cerebral part of the ICA?
- Ophthalmic Artery
- Superior Hyphophyseal Artery
- Posterior Communicating Artery
- Anterior Choroidal Artery
Remember "Coach" - COCH (Communicating, Ophthalmic, Choroidal, Hypophyseal)
Anterior Communicating Artery
Anterior Cerebral Artery
Middle Cerebral Artery
Internal Carotid Artery
Posterior Communicating Artery
Posterior Cerebral Artery
Superior Cerebellar Artery
Inferior Anterior Cerebellar Artery
Inferior Posterior Cerebellar Artery
Anterior Spinal Arteries
What nerve is found at the junction of 8 and 6?
CN III - Oculomotor
What are the 5 recesses of the III ventricle
What leads from the ventricular system to the largest cystern?
From which ventricle and what is the cystern's name?
Foramen of Magendie
- AKA median aperature
- from the fourth ventricle to the cysterna magna
What 3 important veins drain into the internal cerebral vein?
- Vein of Septum Pellucidum
- Thalamostriate Vein
- Superior Choroidal Vein
What artery supplies the choroid plexus of the lateral ventricles?
Lateral: Anterior Choroidal (from ICA or Middle Cerebral A.)
Third: Posterior Choroidal (from Posterior Cerebral A.)
Fourth: Choroidal A. of Fourth Ventricle (from Posterior Inferior Cerebellar A.)
How does CSF leave the lateral recesses of the 4th ventricle?
To what space?
Through the foramina of Luschka
into the Lateral Pontine or Pontocerebellar Cystern
What are the 4 important circumventricular organs (according to Altdorfer's lecture) ?
- Pineal Gland
Neurohypophysis (Posterior Pituitary)
Median Eminence (behind infundibulum [see picture], not in rhomboid fossa)
Area Postrema ("vomiting center" of medulla oblongata)
What general areas of the brain do each of the main cerebral branches of the circle of Willis supply?
See picture below for better understanding.
- Anterior Cerebral Artery - medial areas of the hemispheres + superior gyri
- Middle Cerebral Artery - superfical/lateral areas of the hemispheres
- Posterior Cerebral Artery - occipital lobe + inferior parts of hemispheres
What are the walls of the anterior horn of the lateral ventricles?
Lateral: Head of Caudate Nucleus
Medial: Septum Pellucidum
Floor: Rostrum of CC
Anterior: Genu of CC
Roof: Body of CC
What are the walls of the central part of the lateral ventricles?
Floor: Lamina Affixa on top of thalamus
Roof: Body of CC
Medial: Choroid Lamina Epithelialis attached to fornix
Lateral: Body of Caudate Nucleus
What are the walls of the posterior horn of the lateral ventricle?
All others generally?
Lateral: Tapetum of the CC
All others: Occipital White Matter
Medial: Radiation of CC (Forceps Major) and Calcar Avis (from Calcarine Fissure
Floor: Collateral Trigone (from Collateral Sulcus)
What are the walls of the inferior horn of the lateral ventricle?
- White Matter (Tapetum)
- Tail of Caudate Nucleus (medially)
- Stria Terminalis
- Collateral Eminence (from collateral sulcus)
- Choroid Lamina Epithelialis (attached to Hippocampus/Stria Terminalis)
What are the walls of the 3rd ventricle?
- Anterior Commissure
- Fornix (columns)
- Lamina terminalis
- Choroid Lamina Epithelialis
- Posterior Commissure
- Habenular Commissure
What are the walls of the 4th ventricle?
Roof (upper/apex/lower) ?
- Upper: Superior Medullary Velum
- Apex: Fastigium
- Lower: Inferior Med. Velum, Nodule + Choroid Lamina Epithelialis
- Rhomboid Fossa
What is the metathalamus?
The vision and hearing centers (respectively) of the Lateral and Medial Geniculate Bodies.
(connected via brachii to the superior and inferior collicles, respectively)
Phylogenetic Distribution of the Cerebellum.
What parts constitute the Archicerebellum?
Other names for these?
Archi/Vestibulocerebellum: Flocculonodular Lobe + Lingula
- Anterior Lobe
- Pyramid, Uvula and Anterior of Vermis
- Central Parts of Posterior Lobe
- Lateral Posterior Lobe
- Most of Vermis
Describe blood supply to the spinal cord.
1) Where does it originate from?
2) What contributes to it along the length of the cord?
3) What about blood supply to dorsal/ventral nerve roots?
- Vertebral Arteries give a single Anterior and paired Posterior Spinal Arteries which run down the length of the SC
Spinal Branches arise from intercostal, lumbar, cervical, thoracic and sacral arteries, giving Anterior/Posterior Segmental Medullary Arteries which feed into the anterior/posterior spinal arteries
Anterior/Posterior Radicular Arteries from the spinal branches run along dorsal ventral roots + also supply peripheral portions of the horns
What are the extensions of pia mater from the spinal cord out to the arachnoid mater called?
How many are there?
The create a significant border in relation to CSF. What is it?
- denticulate ligaments
- Ventral to denticulate ligaments, CSF flows upward. Dorsal to them, it flows downward.
What is the name of the special diagonally cut section used to show the basal ganglia?