Midterm III: Trigeminal Nerve, CN V (Ben) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Midterm III: Trigeminal Nerve, CN V (Ben) Deck (32):

What are CN V's four different nuclei?

What type of nucleus is each?

Where are they?

  1. Mesencephalic Trigeminal Nucleus
    • SS (proprioceptive)
    • midbrain
  2. Principle (Pontine) Sensory Nucleus
    • SS (epicritic)
    • pons
  3. Motor Trigeminal Nucleus
    • BM (1st pharyngeal arch)
    • pons
  4. Spinal Trigeminal Nucleus
    • SS (protopathic)
    • medulla


What is the brain exit of CN V?

Dural exit?

Skull exit?

Brain - between pons and brachium pontis

Dural - Meckel's Cave

  • Ophthalmic - cavernous sinus
  • Maxillary - cavernous sinus
  • Mandibular - foramen ovale


  • Ophthalmic - superior orbital fissure
  • Maxillary - foramen rotundum
  • Mandibular - foramen ovale



What is the sensory ganglion of the trigeminal nerve?

Where is it?

Trigeminal Ganglion (AKA Gasserian, Semilunar)

- in Meckel's Cave (next to cavernous sinus)


To which two nuclei do the trigeminal ganglion's postganglionic fibers go?

  1. Spinal Trigeminal Nucleus
  2. Principle Pontine Nucleus of CN V


What are the 3 divisions of the trigeminal nerve?

  1. Opthalmic
  2. Maxillary
  3. Mandibular


What kind of nerve is the ophthalmic nerve (V/1)?



What are the branches of the ophthalmic nerve?

Which of these branches have further branching we need to know?

(don't list the further branches, that comes next)

  1. Recurrent Tentorial Branch
  2. Lacrimal N.
  3. Frontal N. - (2 further branches)
  4. Nasociliary N. - (5 further branches)


What does the lacrimal nerve supply?



Sensory innervation to...

  • lacrimal gland
  • skin of lateral corner of eye


What "guest fibers" does the lacrimal nerve carry?

postganglionic parasympathetic fibers from the zygomatic nerve via the pterygopalatine ganglion 

for motor innervation of the lacrimal gland


What are the branches of the frontal nerve?

  1. Supratrochlear Nerve
  2. Supraorbital Nerve


What does the supratrochlear nerve innervate?

  • medial upper eyelid
  • glabella
  • root of nose


What does the supraorbital nerve innervate?

  • conjunctiva
  • upper eyelid
  • forehead/scalp
  • frontal sinus


What are the 5 branches of the nasociliary nerve?

  1. Communicating Branch (ciliary ganglion)
  2. Long Ciliary Nerves
  3. Posterior Ethmoidal N.
  4. Anterior Ethmoidal N.
  5. Infratrochlear N.


Describe the function of the communicating branch of the nasociliary nerve.


(also known as sensory root of ciliary ganglion)


carries sensory fibers from the eye...

...through the ciliary ganglion (no synapse there, only fibers)...

...into the nasociliary nerve

(which then go back to ophthalmic n. > trigeminal ganglion > trigeminal n.)



Where do the long ciliary nerves/branches come from?

What do they innervate?

(hint: one sensory innervation + one motor via "guest fibers")

- from the nasociliary nerve


  • eyeball (incl. cornea)
  • dilator pupillae
    • via symp. guest fibers from sup. cervical ganglion


What is the posterior ethmoidal nerve a branch of?

What does it innervate?

And how does it get there?

- branch of nasociliary nerve


  • sphenoid sinus
  • posterior ethmoidal air cells

- via the posterior ethmoidal foramen


What is the anterior ethmoidal nerve a branch of?

What are its branches/innervations?


- branch of the nasociliary nerve

  • Anterior Meningeal Branches
  • Interior Nasal Branches
    • anter-superior nasal mucosa
  • External Nasal Branches
    • dorsum/tip of nose


What is the infratrochlear nerve a branch of?

What does it innervate?

- branch of nasociliary nerve


  • eyelid skin
  • root of nose


What kind of nerve is the maxillary nerve?

What are its 4 main branches?


  1. "Ganglionic Branches"
    • to pterygopalatine ganglion
  2. Zygomatic Nerve
  3. Infraorbital Nerve
  4. Meningeal Branch


What is the course of the maxillary nerve after it leaves the trigeminal ganglion?

  • along lateral wall of cavernous sinus
  • through foramen rotundum
  • into pterygopalatine fossa
    • part goes thru pterygopalatine ganglion (without synapsing)
    • part continues on to give zygomatic n. and infraorbital n.


What are 5 important ganglionic branches of the maxillary nerve?

  1. Nasopalatine Nerve - (incisive canal)
  2. Greater Palatine Nerve - (gr. palatine foramen)
  3. Lesser Palatine Nerve - (lesser palatine foramen)
  4. Posterior Superior Nasal Nerve - (med/lat branches)
  5. Posterior Inferior Nasal Nerve



What is the infraorbital nerve a branch of?

What are its 6 branches?

(hint: broken into 2 groups)

Infraorbital nerve arises from maxillary nerve (V/2)

and gives...

Superior Dental Plexus:

  1. Posterior Superior Alveolar Branches
  2. Middle Superior Alveolar Branches
  3. Anterior Superior Alveolar Branches

Pes Anserinus Minor:

  1. Inferior Palpebral Branch
  2. External Nasal Branch
  3. Superior Labial Branch

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What is the zygomatic nerve a branch of?

What are its 3 branches?

The zygomatic nerve branches off of the maxillary nerve (V/2)...

and gives rise to...

  1. Zygomaticofacial N.
  2. Zygomaticotemporal N.
  3. Communication Branch - postganglionic parasympathetic fibers to the lacrimal nerve


How do the zygomatic and infraorbital nerves enter the orbit?

via the inferior orbital fissure


What are the 4 main trunk branches of the mandibular nerve (V/3)?

  1. Recurrent Meningeal Branch
  2. Medial Pterygoid Nerve
  3. Tensor Veli Palatini Nerve
  4. Tensor Tympani Nerve



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The mandibular nerve can be broken into 3 divisions.

What are they?

  1. Main Trunk - mixed
  2. Anterior Division - mostly motor
  3. Posterior Division - mostly sensory


What are the 4 branches of the anterior division of the mandibular nerve (V/3)?

(Most are motor, one is sensory. Which one?)

  1. Masseteric Nerve
  2. Deep Temporal Nerves - (temporalis m.)
  3. Lateral Pterygoid Nerves
  4. Buccal N. - (sensory ---> cheek mucosa)



A image thumb

How does the recurrent meningeal branch re-enter the skull after the mandibular nerve exits via foramen ovale?

via foramen spinosum


What are the 5 branches of the posterior trunk of the mandibular nerve?

(All but one are sensory. Which one?)

  1. Auriculotemporal n.
  2. Lingual n.
  3. Inferior Alveolar n.
    • ​​Mylohyoid n. (motor)
      • mylohyoid + ant. belly digastric
    • Mental Nerve




Where does the lingual nerve run?

What does it innervate?

What guest fibers does it carry + what do they innervate?

- runs in the lateral lingual sulcus

- general somatosensory innervation to anterior 2/3 tongue

- carries chorda tympani fibers (from the facial nerve) for taste in the anterior 2/3 tongue


What is the name for the branches of the inferior alveolar nerve innervating the teeth of the mandible?

inferior dental plexus


What part of the trigeminal nerve innervates muscles of the 1st pharyngeal arch?

(thus making it branchiomotor)

Mandibular N. (V/3)