mixed deck 04/17 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in mixed deck 04/17 Deck (21):

male neonates XY with 5alpha reducaste deficiency

are born with feminized external genitalia, but male internal and are typically masculinze at puberty. a small phallus and hypospadias are commonly found


The earliest lesion of atherosclerosis?

intimal (fatty) streaks, the earliest lesion of atherosclerosis, are composed of intimal lipid filled foam cells, which are derived from macrophages and smooth muscle cells that have engulfed lipoproteins and predominantly LDL



is a reversible, competitive, nonspecific a-adrenergic antagonist used in the management of cathecolamine induced HTN crisis.
BUT high doses of NE can overcome its competitive antagonistic effects

phenoxybenzamine is irreversible competitive antagonist and would not be completely overcome by NE


most common cause of death in patients with DM?

coronary heart disease


Burkitt lymphoma t(8:14)

diffuse medium sized lymphocytes and high proliferation index represented by a high KI-67 fraction
-starry sky appearance is due to presence of benign macrophages


TCA overdose --> refractory hypotension and cardiac arrhthmias

-side effects:
inhibition of sodium channels in cardiac myocytes
(fast sodium channel conduction)


TCA inhibitor effects:

-central and peripheral muscarinic Ach receptors--> tach, delirium, dilated pupils, flushing, decreased diaphoresis, hyperthermia, intestinal ileus, urianry retension

-peripheral a-1-adrenergic receptors--> vasodilation --> orthostatic hypotension

-cardiac fast sodium channels--> conduction defects, arrhthmias, hypotension

-presynaptic NE and 5-HT reuptake --> seizures, tremors

-H1 receptors ---> sedation


Cutanous lymph drainage from the umbilicus to the feet including the external genitalia and anus (up to the dentate line) drain into?

what is the exclusion?

superficial inguinal lymph nodes

the posterior calf is the exclusion and drains to the popliteal lymph nodes


Sarcoidosis, chest xrays and staging

Stage 1L
reveal bilateral hilary lymphadenopathy
stage II:
bilateral hilar lymphadenopathy along with pulmonary infiltrates commonly in the upper lobes
Progression of the disease leads to disappearance of hilar lyphadenopathy
stage III
lung infiltrates only
stave IV
lung fibrosis


serotonins precurser?

tripsy your beagle stealing seretonin turkey at your table


serotonin sydrom

-neuromuscular excitation: hyperreflexia, clonus, myoclonus, rigidity, tremor
-autonomic stimulation: hyperthermia, tachycardia, diaphoresis and vomiting/diarrhea
-altered mental status: agitation and confusion


How to treat serotonin syndrome

-supportive care including airway maintenance, hydration and temperature maintenance
-Cyproheptadine is a serotonin receptor antagonist which is a first generation histamine antagonist with non specific 5-HT1 and 5-HT2 receptor antagonistic properties


How to diminish cystplatins nephrotoxicity?

AMIFOSTINE is a thiol based cytoprotective free-radical scavenging agent


When using benzos watch out for other drugs with sedative effects. Name those drugs

-First generation H1-histamine receptor antagonists cause significant sedations.
diphenhydramine and chlorpheniramine


How do bronchial veins return blood to the heart?

- small portion via the azygous, accessory hemiazygous or intercostals veins.
-majority of blood supplied to bronchial arteries is returned to the left heart in deoxygenated form via the pulmonary veins
0this causes an admixture of blood and would should a decrease in oxygenation in the LA versus the capillaries of the respiratory system



-most common in younger children <2 : often without any structural cause (sometimes associated with viral infections).
-in patients older than 2, a lead point such as meckel diverticulum, foreign body, or intestinal tumor should be sought

colicky, intermittent abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting and currant jelly stools.


Cystinuria with cystine stones

-defect in renal PT
-decreased resorption of the amino acid cystine (2 cysteines)
-recurrent stone formation from a younger age
-urinalysis with show pathognomoic hexagonal cystine crystals
-the sodium cyanide-nitroprusside test detects cytine sulfhydryl groups and is diagnostic


volume of distribution of a drug

hypothetical volume of fluid into which the administered amount of drug would need to be uniformly distributed to produce the observed plasma concentration.



amount of drug given (mg)/plasma concentration of drug (mg/L)


Low volume of distribution 4-8L

high M.W. , high plasma protein binding, high charge and high hyrdophilicity tend to trap the drug in the plasma compartment resulting in a low Vd


60-40-20 rule

60% of the body weight is water
40% in intracellular
20% is extracellular
1/3 of water weight is extracellular

of the the extracellular fluid 1/4 is plasma volume and 3/4 is interstitial fluid.

41L of fluid in the body ~14L is extracellular and ~3L is in plasma

if a drug is large it will be bound extensively to plasma proteins or charged (hydrophilic) it will remain in the plasma compartment and the volume of distribution will be as low as ~3-5L