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Flashcards in mixed 04/15 Deck (17):

cyanide toxicity

-liver rhodanase normally transfers a sulfure to cyanide to form thiocyanide to be excreted in urine
-give sodium thiosulfate this can speed up the process
sulfur party


acute viral hepatitis histo

-panlobular lymphocytic infiltrates, ballooning hepatocytes, hepatocyte necrosis and hepatocyte apoptosis.
-apoptotic hepatocytes form round acidophillic (pink staining on H and E) bodies known as councilman bodies or apoptotic bodies


HIV structural genes

gag, pol and env

gag: p24, p7
env: gp120 gp41


The inferior thyroid artery arises from the throcervical trunk, a branch of the subclavian artery

-it courses deep to the vagus nerve, common carotid artery and internal jugular vein before turning toward the thyroid. Just before meeting the thyroid gland, this arty courses just superficial to the recurrent laryngeal nerve


What is the best agent currently available to increase HDL cholesterol levels?

Niacin vitamin B3


assoc. alcoholism

tears occur secondary to rapid increase of intraabdominal and intraluminal gastric pressure, as when happens during retching and vomiting
-other precipitating factors include: coughing, hiccuping, repeated abdominal straining and trauma


Cladribine (2CDA)

an adenosine analog - inhibits adenosine deaminase
-it achieves high intracellular concentrations, where it is incorporated into the DNA and causes DNA strand breaks.
-used to treat hairy cell leukemia
-penetrates the CNS, excreted in urine


Beta blockers and mortality reduction

-beta blockers, particularly carveidiol sign. decrease heart failure progression as well as all-cause mortality in patients with CHF
-Cavedilol is unique among beta blockers in that it non-specifically antagonizes B1, B2 and a1 adrendergic receptors


Jimson weed (datura stamonium) called Gardeners mydriasis --> belladonna alkaloid toxin

posess strong anticholinergic properties much like atropine poisoning!!!

treat? physostimine


how to here AR the best?

-murmur is typically best heard at the left sternal border, with the patient leaning forward (brings the valve close to the chest wall) and at end expiration (listening during expiration often accentuates left-sided heart murmurs)


respiratory resistance

-trachea and main stem bronchi is relatively high, but in medium sized bronchi there is even more turbulent flow so increased resistance
-resistance drops in the bronchioles and drops even more to the terminal bronchioles


Hemolytic uremic syndrome HUS

-affects young children with acute renal failure, microangiopathic hemolytic anemia and thrombocytopenia
-characteristic laboratory abnormalities include decrease RBC count,hematocrit and platelet count
-increased bleeding time, LDH, BUN and creatinine


which renal calculi are radiolucent on X-ray?

uric acid stones!


eisenmenger syndrome

late onset reversal of L to R shunt due to pulmonary vascular sclerosis resulting from chronic pulmonary HTN


Li fraumeni syndrome p53

-sarcomas, tumors of the breast, brain and adrenal cortex are most common


Diabetic neuropathy of CN III is ischemic

SOMATIC nerve fibers are affected, the parasympathetic fibers of CN III retain function.
so we get the ptosis, down and out gaze in conjuction with normal light and accomodation reflexes as the parasympathetic fibers are ok!


Intrathoracic spread of lung cancer

-may irritate the phrenic nerve, causing hiccups and diaphragmatic paralysis and dyspnea
-may involve the recurrent laryngeal nerve and cause hoarseness
-may involve the brachial plexus and can cause pain in the distribution of C8, T1 and T2 nerve roots