Flashcards in mixed 04/15 Deck (17):
-liver rhodanase normally transfers a sulfure to cyanide to form thiocyanide to be excreted in urine
-give sodium thiosulfate this can speed up the process
acute viral hepatitis histo
-panlobular lymphocytic infiltrates, ballooning hepatocytes, hepatocyte necrosis and hepatocyte apoptosis.
-apoptotic hepatocytes form round acidophillic (pink staining on H and E) bodies known as councilman bodies or apoptotic bodies
HIV structural genes
gag, pol and env
gag: p24, p7
env: gp120 gp41
The inferior thyroid artery arises from the throcervical trunk, a branch of the subclavian artery
-it courses deep to the vagus nerve, common carotid artery and internal jugular vein before turning toward the thyroid. Just before meeting the thyroid gland, this arty courses just superficial to the recurrent laryngeal nerve
What is the best agent currently available to increase HDL cholesterol levels?
Niacin vitamin B3
tears occur secondary to rapid increase of intraabdominal and intraluminal gastric pressure, as when happens during retching and vomiting
-other precipitating factors include: coughing, hiccuping, repeated abdominal straining and trauma
an adenosine analog - inhibits adenosine deaminase
-it achieves high intracellular concentrations, where it is incorporated into the DNA and causes DNA strand breaks.
-used to treat hairy cell leukemia
-penetrates the CNS, excreted in urine
Beta blockers and mortality reduction
-beta blockers, particularly carveidiol sign. decrease heart failure progression as well as all-cause mortality in patients with CHF
-Cavedilol is unique among beta blockers in that it non-specifically antagonizes B1, B2 and a1 adrendergic receptors
Jimson weed (datura stamonium) called Gardeners mydriasis --> belladonna alkaloid toxin
posess strong anticholinergic properties much like atropine poisoning!!!
how to here AR the best?
-murmur is typically best heard at the left sternal border, with the patient leaning forward (brings the valve close to the chest wall) and at end expiration (listening during expiration often accentuates left-sided heart murmurs)
-trachea and main stem bronchi is relatively high, but in medium sized bronchi there is even more turbulent flow so increased resistance
-resistance drops in the bronchioles and drops even more to the terminal bronchioles
Hemolytic uremic syndrome HUS
-affects young children with acute renal failure, microangiopathic hemolytic anemia and thrombocytopenia
-characteristic laboratory abnormalities include decrease RBC count,hematocrit and platelet count
-increased bleeding time, LDH, BUN and creatinine
which renal calculi are radiolucent on X-ray?
uric acid stones!
late onset reversal of L to R shunt due to pulmonary vascular sclerosis resulting from chronic pulmonary HTN
Li fraumeni syndrome p53
-sarcomas, tumors of the breast, brain and adrenal cortex are most common
Diabetic neuropathy of CN III is ischemic
SOMATIC nerve fibers are affected, the parasympathetic fibers of CN III retain function.
so we get the ptosis, down and out gaze in conjuction with normal light and accomodation reflexes as the parasympathetic fibers are ok!