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Flashcards in [MND] Traumatic Brain Injury 2 Deck (10):

Damage can be FOCAL or damage can be DIFFUSE; what are they?

FOCAL -> Due to contact injury types resulting in contusion, laceration, and intracranial haemorrhage
DIFFUSE -> Due to acceleration/deceleration injury types resulting in DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY or BRAIN INJURY. A wide-spread injury.


Risk Factors TBI

Being an adolescent male, being an elderly man due to falls, risk taking behaviour, young infants (shaken baby syndrome)


Classification of as having a TBI, you need to have one or more of the following:

- Confusion or disorientation
- Loss of consciousness
- Post-traumatic amnesia
- Other neurological abnormalities



20,000 to 30,000 cases per year
every day 90 New Zealander's sustain a brain injury


Clinical features of moderate to severe TBI?

Headache that doesn't go away, repeated vomiting or nausea, dilation of one or more pupils, slurred speech, aphasia, dysarthria, weakness or numbness in the limbs


Outcome measure for patient 45, moderate TBI, difficulty using elbow and hand functionally and unable to grasp and release an object?

Wolf motor Function Test; measures upper limb function; involves several functional tasks such as turning key lock and flipping cards


Common causes of TBI?

Sporting accidents and falls are primary factors for under 20 years
Falls in older adults as well
transport accidents particularly in the adult populations
motor vehicle accidents etc


For mirror therapy in terms of joint movement, you will go from

simple joint movements (i.e. single finger) to multiple joint movements then to unilateral functional tasks


Secondary Processes in Secondary Damage develop over hours and days, they include

- Neurotransmitter releases
- calcium-mediated damage
- mitochondrial dysfunction
- inflammatory responses


A Glasgow Coma Scale is a commonly used system for classifying TBI severity and grades a person's level of consciousness on a scale of 3 to 15 based on verbal, motor, and eye-opening reactions to stimuli.
A moderate Glasgow Coma Scale score would be

9 to 12 (8 and below is severe; above 13 mild)