Flashcards in [MND] Traumatic Brain Injury 2 Deck (10):
Damage can be FOCAL or damage can be DIFFUSE; what are they?
FOCAL -> Due to contact injury types resulting in contusion, laceration, and intracranial haemorrhage
DIFFUSE -> Due to acceleration/deceleration injury types resulting in DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY or BRAIN INJURY. A wide-spread injury.
Risk Factors TBI
Being an adolescent male, being an elderly man due to falls, risk taking behaviour, young infants (shaken baby syndrome)
Classification of as having a TBI, you need to have one or more of the following:
- Confusion or disorientation
- Loss of consciousness
- Post-traumatic amnesia
- Other neurological abnormalities
20,000 to 30,000 cases per year
every day 90 New Zealander's sustain a brain injury
Clinical features of moderate to severe TBI?
Headache that doesn't go away, repeated vomiting or nausea, dilation of one or more pupils, slurred speech, aphasia, dysarthria, weakness or numbness in the limbs
Outcome measure for patient 45, moderate TBI, difficulty using elbow and hand functionally and unable to grasp and release an object?
Wolf motor Function Test; measures upper limb function; involves several functional tasks such as turning key lock and flipping cards
Common causes of TBI?
Sporting accidents and falls are primary factors for under 20 years
Falls in older adults as well
transport accidents particularly in the adult populations
motor vehicle accidents etc
For mirror therapy in terms of joint movement, you will go from
simple joint movements (i.e. single finger) to multiple joint movements then to unilateral functional tasks
Secondary Processes in Secondary Damage develop over hours and days, they include
- Neurotransmitter releases
- calcium-mediated damage
- mitochondrial dysfunction
- inflammatory responses