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Flashcards in [MND] Multiple Sclerosis Deck (16):

Multiple Sclerosis is an

autoimmune disease resulting in demyelination of central nervous system (CNS) neurons (their axons) resulting in delays or blocks in neural transmissions


Primary progressive MS can be described

Progressive and cumulative neurological deficit and disability


Benign MS can be described as

One or two relapses and remissions resulting in full recovery and no disability


Secondary Progressive can be described as

Recurrent relapses and remissions developing into progressive deterioration. Disability increases.


Relapsing-Remitting MS can be described as

Recurrent relapses and remission resulting in complete or partial recovery


Epidemiology: MS

- 1 case per 1000 in NZ
- Onset commonly occurs between the ages of 20 and 40 years
- Affects women 3 times more frequently than men


Talk about the distribution of plaques in MS

Pathological examination of the brain and spinal cord reveals characteristic plaques of MS which are predominantly in the white matter
The lesions are random throughout the cerebral hemispheres, the brain stem, the cerebellum and the spinal cord


Talk about remyelination in MS

A repair process which can occur following an acute inflammatory demyelinating episode / early stages of MS but appears thinner than the original myelin. It may allow functional recovery but oligodendrocytes are unable to rebuild it completely


Repeated attacks can cause a build up of

scar-like plaque around the damaged axons which blocks nerve conduction permanently


MS is characterised by a loss of oligodendrocytes which

gives off a number of processes which ensheath surrounding axons (insulation), enveloping the axon producing/resulting in a myelin segment


Lesions located in the brain stem can affect speech resulting in

Dysarthria (articulating speech)


Affects on the musculoskeletal system include

weakness, spasms, ataxia


The are the two most common symptoms of MS?

- Presentation of visual loss (usually unilateral)
- Neurological deficits (weakness, numbness, unsteadiness, slurred speech, nystagmus, intention tremor)



Based on presenting signs and symptoms in combination with:
1) MRI
2) Lumbar Puncture (for cerebrospinal fluid)
3) Evoked Potentials (tests can include visual, brain stem, auditory, somatosensory evoked potentials)


Maintaining and increasing range of motion, maintaing and encouraging weight-bearing and encouraging postural stability can be considered

Some primary aims of physiotherapy


What is 'Disease Steps'

An ordinal clinical rating scale developed to provide a straightforward assessment of functional disability in MS primarily based on ambulation. 0 (normal) to 6 (wheelchair)