[AC] Cardiac Surgery Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in [AC] Cardiac Surgery Deck (18):
1

What are the clinical features of Coronary Artery Disease?

Angina, MI, Asymptomatic, Dyspnoea

2

Coronary Artery Bypass Graft is a surgery to reduce what?

The risk of death from Coronary Artery Disease

3

Briefly, list some causes of Valvular disease?

- Congenital Malformation
- Bacterial Endocarditis
- Rheumatic Fever
- Valve Prolapse
- Myocardial Infarction

4

The majority of OPEN cardiac surgery operations are carried out by WHAT KIND of incision?

Median Sternotomy Incision (vertical incision is made along the sternum)

5

When are Coronary Artery Bypass Grafts performed?

When the coronary arteries are stenosed or occluded and the risk of MI is high

6

In valve replacements, what are they normally replaced with?

Biological or mechanical prostheses

7

What are some common cardiac operations?

Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting
Aortic Valve Replacements
Mitral Valve Replacements

8

Most cardiac surgery is carried out under 'open' conditions. The heart is usually ceased during operation and a cardiopulmonary bypass machine is used to maintain what?

The circulation during the operation to ensure vital organs maintain sufficient oxygenation to prevent damage including infarction

9

What are some common grafts used for Coronary Artery Bypass Graft surgery?

Long Saphenous Vein & the Internal Mammary Arteries
Or even the arm vessels (brachiocephalic or radial)

10

During open heart surgery with a cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) machine, what is happening to the lungs commonly?

The lungs are partly collapsed and periodically re-inflated by the anaesthetist to prevent complete atelectasis

11

A procedure to open narrow or blocked coronary arteries to restore blood flow to the heart without open heart surgery is called?

Coronary Angioplasty

12

Complications with Coronary Angioplasty include?

Rupture of the vessel
acute closure of the vessel

13

Coronary Angioplasty involves?

A catheter with a balloon positioned at the midpoint of the stenosis. It is inflated thus stretching and splitting the plaque restoring blood flow. Usually a stent is introduced over the surface of the balloon and it remains in place following the procedure.

14

What happens with the sternum during cardiac surgery and what are some precautions afterwards?

The sternum gets raped.
Typical activity restrictions for 6-12 weeks include driving, no lifting/pushing/pulling more than 10lbs, and avoiding unilateral abduction/flexion

15

There are some sternum precautions after cardiac surgery. What is considered the worst and least worst by El Ansary (2007)?

Pushing from chair sit to stand (worst)
Simultaneous Arm Elevation (least)

16

What condition involves a weak area of the abdominal aorta expanding or bulging?

Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

17

Summarise the role of physiotherapy in cardiac surgery?

- Prehabilitation
- Early Ambulation Protocols
- Rx of PPCs
- Postoperative Exercise Rehabilitation

18

Coronary Angioplasty is done by threading a catheter (thin tube) through

a small puncture in the leg (i.e. groin) or arm artery through to the heart

Read (great summary on surgery):
https://www.heart.org/idc/groups/heart-public/@wcm/@hcm/documents/downloadable/ucm_300437.pdf