MNSR 16 - Nervous system: Autonomic Nervous System, Cranial Nerves, Brain Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in MNSR 16 - Nervous system: Autonomic Nervous System, Cranial Nerves, Brain Deck (8)
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What is a receptor?

A receptor is a protein molecule that receives and responds to a neurotransmitter, hormone, or other substance. There are two types of receptors:
1. Adrenergic: binds and responds to adrenaline
2. Cholinergic: Binds and responds to ACh


Where does adrenaline come from?

Adrenaline is secreted by:
1. postganglionic neurons in the Sympathetic Nervous System
2. Adrenal gland


What are the two classes of adrenoreceptors?

- a1: found in smooth muscle, causes vasoconstriction of blood vessels, relaxation of GIT, and pale appearance
- a2: found in presynaptic and postsynaptic terminals, mediate synaptic transmission
- b1: found in heart and cerebral cortex, increase rate and force of heart contractions
- b2: found in lungs, smooth muscle, and cerebellum, cause bronchiole dilation, relaxation of smooth muscle
- b3: found in adipose tissue, causes the breakdown of fat
(Noradrenaline stimulates mainly alpha adrenoreceptors, a slight effect on beta adrenoreceptors)


What are the two types of AChRs?

1. Nicotinic AChr: bind to nicotine, located in the CNS, NMJ, Presynaptic terminal in ganglia
2. Muscarinic AChr: bind to muscarine, located between the postganglionic neuron and innervated tissue


List the groups of cranial nerves.

1. Special Sensory
- I Olfactory
- II Optic
- VIII Auditory
2. Doral Root
- V Trigeminal
- VII Facial
- IX Glossopharyngeal
- X Vagus
- XI Accessory
3. Ventral Root
- III Oculomotor
- IV Trochlear
- VI Abducens
- XII Hypoglossal


Explain the morphology of the brain.

1. Cerebral Cortex
- Frontal (coordination and planning)
- Parietal (sensory info)
- Temporal (Auditory)
- Occipital (Visual)
2. Brainstem
- midbrain (motor function)
- pons (relays sensory info between the cerebellum and cerebrum)
- medulla oblongata (controls autonomic function)
3. Cerebellum (fine tunes movement, motor output, and sensory perception)


What are the names of the four regions developed after four weeks?

1. Prosencephalon
2. Mesencephalon
3. Rhombencephalon
4. Spinal Cord


What are neuroglia?

A class of cells in the brain and spinal cord that form a supporting structure for the neurons and provide them insulation. There are two types:
1. Macroglia
- astrocyte (most abundant, most prominent in grey matter)
- oligodendrocyte (most prominent in white matter)
- radial glia
- ependymal cell
- Schwann cell
- Satellite cell
2. Microglia