MNSR 16 - Nervous system: Autonomic Nervous System, Cranial Nerves, Brain Flashcards Preview

MNSR > MNSR 16 - Nervous system: Autonomic Nervous System, Cranial Nerves, Brain > Flashcards

Flashcards in MNSR 16 - Nervous system: Autonomic Nervous System, Cranial Nerves, Brain Deck (8)
Loading flashcards...
1

What is a receptor?

A receptor is a protein molecule that receives and responds to a neurotransmitter, hormone, or other substance. There are two types of receptors:
1. Adrenergic: binds and responds to adrenaline
2. Cholinergic: Binds and responds to ACh

2

Where does adrenaline come from?

Adrenaline is secreted by:
1. postganglionic neurons in the Sympathetic Nervous System
2. Adrenal gland

3

What are the two classes of adrenoreceptors?

Alpha-adrenoreceptors:
- a1: found in smooth muscle, causes vasoconstriction of blood vessels, relaxation of GIT, and pale appearance
- a2: found in presynaptic and postsynaptic terminals, mediate synaptic transmission
Beta-adrenoreceptors:
- b1: found in heart and cerebral cortex, increase rate and force of heart contractions
- b2: found in lungs, smooth muscle, and cerebellum, cause bronchiole dilation, relaxation of smooth muscle
- b3: found in adipose tissue, causes the breakdown of fat
(Noradrenaline stimulates mainly alpha adrenoreceptors, a slight effect on beta adrenoreceptors)

4

What are the two types of AChRs?

1. Nicotinic AChr: bind to nicotine, located in the CNS, NMJ, Presynaptic terminal in ganglia
2. Muscarinic AChr: bind to muscarine, located between the postganglionic neuron and innervated tissue

5

List the groups of cranial nerves.

1. Special Sensory
- I Olfactory
- II Optic
- VIII Auditory
2. Doral Root
- V Trigeminal
- VII Facial
- IX Glossopharyngeal
- X Vagus
- XI Accessory
3. Ventral Root
- III Oculomotor
- IV Trochlear
- VI Abducens
- XII Hypoglossal

6

Explain the morphology of the brain.

1. Cerebral Cortex
- Frontal (coordination and planning)
- Parietal (sensory info)
- Temporal (Auditory)
- Occipital (Visual)
2. Brainstem
- midbrain (motor function)
- pons (relays sensory info between the cerebellum and cerebrum)
- medulla oblongata (controls autonomic function)
3. Cerebellum (fine tunes movement, motor output, and sensory perception)

7

What are the names of the four regions developed after four weeks?

1. Prosencephalon
2. Mesencephalon
3. Rhombencephalon
4. Spinal Cord

8

What are neuroglia?

A class of cells in the brain and spinal cord that form a supporting structure for the neurons and provide them insulation. There are two types:
1. Macroglia
- astrocyte (most abundant, most prominent in grey matter)
- oligodendrocyte (most prominent in white matter)
- radial glia
- ependymal cell
- Schwann cell
- Satellite cell
2. Microglia