Maximum dorsiflexion occurs during which phase of gait?
a. Initial contact
c. Terminal Stance
d. Push Off
A single gait cycle is defined as the activity that occurs from:
a. Heel strike on one side to heel strike on the ipsilateral side
b. Double limb support on one side to double limb support on the contralateral side
c. Heel off on one side to heel strike on the ipsilateral side
d. Heel off on one side to heel strike on the contralateral side
Heel strike on one side to heel strike on the ipsilateral side
During which phase of gait are the hip extensors most active
a. Loading Response
d. Terminal Stance
Which muscle most closely duplicates the function of the tibialis anterior
a. Tibialis Posterior
b. Peroneus Longus
c. Extensor Hallicus Longus
d. Extensor Digitorum Longus
Extensor Hallicus Longus
Which of the following is often the result of an irregular birth?
a. Gower’s sign
b. Down Syndrome
c. Erb’s Palsy
d. Spina Bifida
Which of the following is inflammation of the outer covering of the brain and spinal cord?
a. Cerebral Palsy
c. Multiple Sclerosis
- A patient presents to your office with bossing of the right posterior cranium and flattening on the left posterior cranium. How would you classify this?
a. Right posterior brachycephalic
b. Right posterior plagiocephaly
c. Left posterior brachycephalic
d. Left posterior plagiocephaly
Left posterior brachycephalic
What is the primary target organ in rheumatoid arthritis?
What is the lubricant filled sac which, if removed, results in increased friction?
d. Nucleus Pulposis
- What is the superior margin of the paraspinal bars on a Taylor TLSO?
b. Spine of the scapula
c. Inferior angle of the scapula
d. Superior angle of the scapula
Spine of the scapula
Which pathology is most likely to be fit with free knee joints?
a. L2 spinal cord injury
b. Damage to the femoral nerve
c. Moderate knee flexion contracture
d. Genu varum deformity
Genu varum deformity
Which type of scoliosis is most likely the result of a leg length discrepancy?
a. Neuromuscular scoliosis
b. Congenital scoliosis
c. Nonstructural scoliosis
d. Idiopathic scoliosis
Which would you most expect to see in a patient with a plantarflexion contracture?
a. Late heel rise at terminal stance
b. Genu recurvatum at midstance
c. Increased knee flexion at loading response
d. Reduced knee flexion at midswing
Genu recurvatum at midstance
True dorsiflexion and plantarflexion occur in what plane?
What orthosis would best restore upper extremity function for a patient with a spinal cord injury above the C6 nerve root?
a. Cock up splint
b. Mobile arm support
c. Wrist driven WHO
d. HO with thumb post
Wrist driven WHO
What is most appropriate for a median nerve injury at the wrist?
b. WHO w/ C bar
d. WHO with thumb post
WHO with thumb post
The primary function of the brachioradialis is:
a. Elbow flexion, wrist extension
b. Elbow Flexion
c. Supination, wrist extension
d. Wrist radial deviation
In addition to the deltoid, the axillary nerve innervates the:
a. Teres minor
b. Teres major
c. Short head of the Triceps brachii
Which of the following statements is most accurate?
a. Coding should be done based on your experience as a clinician
b. It is the office administrator’s responsibility to determine accurate coding
c. Coding decisions should accurately reflect appropriately provided services
d. Correctly completed coding should generate the maximum revenue
Coding decisions should accurately reflect appropriately provided services
The axis of rotation of the hip joint is located:
a. Anterior & superior to the greater trochanter
b. Posterior & superior to the greater trochanter
c. Anterior & inferior to the greater trochanter
d. Posterior & inferior to the greater trochanter
Anterior & superior to the greater
Which is not considered an upper motor neuron disease or injury?
a. Multiple Sclerosis
b. Cerebral Palsy
c. Diabetic Neuropathy
d. Cerebrovascular Accident
a. A flat broad tendon
b. A thin tendon sheath
c. A membrane dividing muscle compartments
d. A synovial joint lining
A flat broad tendon
Spondylolisthesis is a condition best described as:
a. A fracture of the pars articularis
b. Anterior displacement of the L5 vertebra in relation to the sacrum
c. Anterior displacement of the sacrum in relation to the L5 vertebra
d. A subluxation of the superior facet
Anterior displacement of the L5 vertebra in relation to the sacrum
A hand orthosis controls:
a. Palmar arch and thumb position
b. Radial deviation
c. First dorsal interosseus
d. Transverse arch and carpal tunnel
Palmar arch and thumb position
Flaccid paralysis is most often seen in:
a. Central nervous system injuries
b. Lower motor neuron injuries
c. Upper motor neuron injuries
d. Both a and c
Lower motor neuron injuries
A patient presents with excessive tibial torsion. How should this be incorporated into a conventional double upright AFO?
a. Provide a lateral t-strap
b. Externally rotate the shoe on the stirrup
c. Deflect the sidebars
d. Externally rotate the joints
Deflect the sidebars
You deliver a device in the hospital to a patient who is not able to communicate. You should:
a. Provide the nurse with thorough verbal instructions
b. Provide the patient with thorough verbal instructions
c. Provide the nurse with verbal instructions and leave written instructions
d. Leave written instructions at the patient’s bedside
Provide the nurse with verbal instructions and leave written instructions
- You see a patient post triple ankle arthrodesis. What is the best device to provide?
a. A negative heel shoe modification
b. A rocker sole with SACH heel wedge
c. A corrective foot orthosis
d. A CROW boot
A rocker sole with SACH heel wedge
- Which muscle inserts on the navicular and medial cuneiform?
a. Posterior tibialis
b. Peroneus longus
c. Peroneus tertius
d. Extensor digitorum longus
The space between an axon and a dendrite is called the:
c. Schwann’s space
The gelatinous center of a spinal disc is the:
a. Annulus fibrosis
b. Conus Medullaris
c. Articular Capsule
d. Nucleus Pulposus
A patient reports pain at the navicular and posterior to the medial malleolus. What is the most likely pathology?
a. Charcot foot
b. Posterior tibial tendon dysfunction
c. Diabetic neuropathy
d. Plantar fasciitis
Posterior tibial tendon dysfunction
Which muscle serves to abduct the phalanges away from the 3rd digit?
b. Palmar Interossei
c. Dorsal Interossei
d. Adductor pollicis
- Poliomyelitis is what type of pathology?
a. Lower motor neuron
b. Upper motor neuron
Lower motor neuron
A patient with a complete C6 spinal cord injury powers a wrist-driven flexor hinge tenodesis orthosis by using the
A. flexor digitorum sublimis
B. extensor digitorum communis and extensor carpi radialis
C. extensor carpi radialis longus and brevis
D. extensor digitorum communis and extensor carpi ulnaris
extensor digitorum communis and extensor carpi ulnaris
Which ligament prevents hyperextension of the hip joint?
a. Ischiofemoral ligament
b. Inguinal ligament
c. Obturator membrane
d. Iliofemoral ligament
Which of the following is least likely to increase the likelihood of an infant developing a positional deformation of the cranium?
a. Infant is a twin or triplet
b. Low amniotic fluid in utero
c. Diagnosis of osteogenesis imperfect
d. Below 50% on weight chart at 4 months of age
Below 50% on weight chart at 4 months of age
The position of the thoracic facets most easily allows for which movements?
a. Rotation and extension
b. Rotation and lateral flexion
c. Flexion and abduction
d. Flexion and extension
Rotation and lateral flexion
Patient is in your office for a scoliosis TLSO adjustment. You note the orthosis is too small and her latest x-ray shows a Risser sign of 4. What action should you take?
a. Contact the physician for a prescription for a new orthosis
b. Discuss weaning out of the orthosis and refer patient to physician for end of treatment
c. Discuss moving to a nocturnal style of scoliosis TLSO
d. Adjust the orthosis by heating and relieving the tight areas
Discuss weaning out of the orthosis and refer patient to physician for end of treatment
Blount disease is also known as:
a. Tibia vara
b. Fibular hemimelia
c. Coxa valga
- Which of the following is not true of Sheurmann’s kyphosis?
a. It may be treated using a Milwaukee CTLSO
b. It is a sagittal plane deformity
c. An LSO to posteriorly tilt pelvis will improve this condition
d. It is an idiopathic juvenile disorder
An LSO to posteriorly tilt pelvis will improve this condition
- The most appropriate orthotic treatment for a patient with a T12 compression fracture is:
a. Thoracolumbar corset
c. Bivalve TLSO with reduced lordosis
d. Anterior control hyperextension orthosis
Anterior control hyperextension orthosis
What gait deviation would you primarily expect to see with a tibial nerve lesion?
a. Dropfoot through swing phase
b. Over pronation in weight bearing
c. Plantarflexion contracture
d. Uncontrolled tibial advancement in stance phase
Uncontrolled tibial advancement in stance phase
- Which is not a part of the scapula?
a. Glenoid cavity
b. Coracoid process
c. Coronoid process
d. Acromion process
- A young child with a T12 myelomeningocele is seen in your office for a device that will help patient ambulate in the home and classroom and will allow hands free standing. What device do you evaluate him for?
a. Bilateral locked knee KAFOs with Lofstrand crutches
c. Bilateral stance control KAFOs
d. Ground reaction AFOs
What compensatory motion would most likely be seen in an individual with quadriceps weakness?
a. Steppage gait
b. Forward trunk lean
c. Trendelenburg gait
Forward trunk lean
A patient with hyperkyphosis is placed in a Milwaukee CTLSO for treatment. Where should the corrective pressures be placed?
a. Anterior throat ring, anterior thoracic pad
b. Anterior throat ring, posterior thoracic pad
c. Posterior throat ring, anterior thoracic pad
d. Posterior throat ring, posterior thoracic pad
Anterior throat ring, posterior thoracic pad
Gower’s sign is best described by which of the following?
a. With a semi-flexed knee and foot resting on a firm surface move the proximal tibia anteriorly and posteriorly on the femur. A tibia that moves posteriorly is a positive sign.
b. With patient side-lying and knee supported abduct and extend the hip, a knee that does not adduct when released is a positive sign.
c. Have the patient move from a seated position on the floor to standing. The patient using his or her arms to walk up the thighs is a positive sign.
d. Have the patient supine on the bed with one leg pulled to the chest and the opposite leg extended off the table with knee flexed. A positive sign is the extended leg flexing or abducting at the hip.
Have the patient move from a seated position on the floor to standing. The patient using his or her arms to walk up the thighs is a positive sign.
- A patient comes into the office exhibiting lasting redness on the navicular and medial malleolus after wearing her new AFO. What adjustment is most likely to correct this problem?
a. Remake with a lateral Sabolich extension
b. Move the ankle strap so that the chafe is medial and the strap is lateral
c. Adjust the medial trimline posterior to the medial malleolus and inferior to the navicular
d. Add a firm pad to increase pressure under the sustentaculum tali
Add a firm pad to increase pressure under the sustentaculum tali
- What is the prime elbow flexor?
c. Biceps Femoris
- Hydrocephalus often accompanies which of the following?
b. Positional plagiocephaly
c. Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome
d. Spina Bifida
- The lumbricals function to:
a. Flex the MCP joints and the PIP joints
b. Extend the MCP joints
c. Flex the MCP joints and extend the PIP joints
d. Abduct the phalanges
Flex the MCP joints and extend the PIP joints
- The muscle length-tension relationship describes:
a. The concept that strength of a muscle changes depending on the affected joint’s position through its arc of motion
b. The concept that a contracted muscle is inherently a strong muscle
c. The concept that the farther a force is placed from a fulcrum point, the stronger the force on the fulcrum will be
d. The concept that the strength of a muscle can be measured in direct relation to the cross sectional area of the muscle
The concept that strength of a muscle changes depending on the affected joint’s position through its arc of motion
- The adductors of the scapula include all but the:
a. Middle trapezius
c. Latissimus dorsi
d. Serratus anterior
- Which of the following is not a prehension pattern?
- Which term best pertains to the palm of the hand and the sole of the foot?
- Which of the following is not a biarticular muscle?
b. Biceps femoris
c. Vastus medialus
d. Rectus femoris
- Which of the following actions are carried out by the sartorius?
a. Hip flexion and external rotation; knee flexion
b. Hip flexion; knee extension
c. Hip abduction and external rotation; knee extension
d. Hip abduction and internal rotation; knee flexion
Hip flexion and external rotation; knee flexion
Your patient is experiencing pressure at the proximal posterior of the AFO he wears to control mild genu recurvatum. What is the best choice to eliminate this pressure?
a. Lower the proximal trimline 2cm
b. Add a 0.5cm lift under the heel of the orthosis
c. Heat and flare the proximal trimline
d. Adjust the ankle joint to allow 10 degrees plantarflexion
Heat and flare the proximal trimline
Which scenario is best to test to differential between a grade 3 and a grade 4 psoas major strength?
a. Patient lies supine with knee extended; examiner resists hip flexion
b. Patient lies prone with knee flexed; examiner resists hip extension
c. Patient lies supine with knee extended; examiner resists hip extension
d. Patient lies side-lying with knee flexed; examiner resists hip flexion
Patient lies supine with knee extended; examiner resists hip flexion
- When instructing a patient to ascend/descend stairs with unilateral weakness, which is appropriate?
a. Ascend leading with the sound limb; descend leading with the sound limb
b. Ascend leading with the affected limb; descend leading with the sound limb
c. Ascend leading with the sound limb; descend leading with the affected limb
d. Always use a step-to gait, leading with the sound limb on ascent and decent
Ascend leading with the sound limb; descend leading with the affected limb
- Which of the following statements about the gluteus maximus is incorrect?
a. It is innervated by the inferior gluteal nerve
b. It functions as an internal rotator of the hip
c. It inserts on the gluteal tuberosity of the femur
d. Part of it originates on the ilium
It functions as an internal rotator of the hip
- A positive Trendelenburg sign is assigned when:
a. There is weakness of the gluteus maximus
b. The affected side pelvis drops upon weight bearing on the sound side
c. Patient lacks sufficient muscle strength to maintain hip adduction
d. The sound side pelvis drops upon weight bearing on the affected sid
The sound side pelvis drops upon weight bearing on the affected side
A patient comes into your office stating low back pain caused by hyperlordosis. What advise might you give your patient to reduce symptoms?
a. Avoid sleeping with the knees flexed
b. Avoid wearing shoes with a heel higher than 3/8”
c. Avoid crunches or other core exercises
d. Focus on posture and practicing decreasing posterior pelvic tilt
Avoid wearing shoes with a heel higher than 3/8”
- Which of the following is a purely a sensory nerve?
- Maximum plantarflexion occurs at what phase of gait?
a. Loading response
b. Pre Swing
c. Terminal Stance
d. Heel Off
A patient wearing a metal and leather KAFO with double adjustable ankles experiences excessive knee flexion during standing. To reduce this the orthotist should:
a. Deepen the proximal thigh band
b. Deflect uprights to move knee joints more posterior
c. Deepen the calf band
d. Add a pin to the posterior channel of the ankle joint
Deepen the calf band
- The primary hip flexor is the:
a. Tensor Fascia Latae
c. Rectus Femoris
Lateral stability of the pelvis in stance phase is accomplished through the action of which muscle?
b. Gluteus medius
c. Gluteus minimus
d. Internal obliques
- You deliver a TLSO to a patient scheduled to discharge from the hospital in one week. The hospital states they cannot issue a purchase order because the device should be billed to Medicare. You should:
a. Bill Medicare using the date of delivery as the date of service
b. Bill Medicare using the date of discharge as the date of service
c. Inform the hospital that you cannot legally bill Medicare in this situation
d. Bill the skilled nursing facility to which the patient is scheduled to discharge
Inform the hospital that you cannot legally bill Medicare in this situation
- Which is not considered a business associate under HIPAA regulations?
c. Accounting services
d. Independent medical transcriptionist
- Which is the prime extensor of the vertebral column?
b. Erector Spinae
d. Quadratus lumborum
- Which muscle is not innervated by the obturator nerve?
a. Adductor brevis
b. Adductor longus
- Swan neck deformity refers to which position?
a. Flexion of the PIP joint, hyperextension of the DIP joint
b. Flexion of the DIP joint, hyperextension of the PIP joint
c. Hyperextension of the DIP joint, hyperextension of the PIP joint, flexion of MCP joint
d. Flexion of the DIP joint, flexion of the PIP joint, hyperextension of the MCP joint
Flexion of the DIP joint, hyperextension of the PIP joint
- Which of the following is not true of gait?
a. The percent of gait spent in double limb support decreases with gait speed
b. Initial swing begins at toe off and continues until the tibia reaches vertical
c. Stance phase accounts for approximately 60 percent of the gait cycle
d. When the right leg is in loading response the left leg is in preswing
Initial swing begins at toe off and continues until the tibia reaches vertical
To promote healing in a case of Legg Calve Perthes disease, the hip should be positioned in:
a. Abduction and internal rotation
b. Adduction and external rotation
c. Abduction and flexion
d. Adduction and extension
Abduction and internal rotation
Which of the following best represents the principles followed when fitting a Milwaukee TLSO?
a. With more than one curve, the curve with the greatest flexibility (compensatory curve) should be loaded first, as it usually responds to correction more quickly
b. With double primary curves the superior curve should be loaded first
c. Due to viscoelastic relaxation in the soft tissues, the pads may require loosening periodically
d. The loading vector for thoracic and lumbar pads should be anteromedial in almost all cases
The loading vector for thoracic and lumbar pads should be anteromedial in almost all cases
- The deformity caused by unilateral contracture of the sternocleidomastoid is called:
a. Klippel-Feil Syndrome
c. Brachial Palsy
An orthosis for a patient post anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction should primarily control:
a. Flexion of the knee
b. Varus angulation of the knee
c. Anterior displacement of the tibia on the femur
d. Posterior displacement of the tibia on the femur
Anterior displacement of the tibia on the femur
An involuntary oscillating movement elicited by a rapid stretch is:
b. High tone
- The subtalar joint is an articulation between the talus and the___________ and primarily allows ____________ :
a. Calcaneus: Inversion/Eversion
b. Tibia and fibula: Inversion/Eversion
c. Calcaneus: Dorsiflexion/Plantarflexion
d. Tibia and fibula: Dorsiflexion/Plantarflexion
- Which muscle does not act on the wrist:
a. Flexor digitorum profundus
b. Palmaris longus
d. Flexor Carpi Ulnaris
Which AFO is most appropriate for a patient who exhibits both knee instability at initial contact and genu recurvatum at midstance
a. Double adjustable with pins in the anterior channel
b. Double adjustable with pins in the posterior channel
c. Double adjustable with pins in the posterior channel and springs in the anterior channel
d. Solid Ankle AFO
Solid Ankle AFO
- You are testing a patient’s L3, L4, and L5 myotomes. Which of the following motions do you test?
a. Hip flexion/knee extension/plantarflexion
b. Hip flexion/ knee extension/dorsiflexion
c. Knee extension/plantarflexion/great toe flexion
d. Knee extension/ dorsiflexion/ great toe extension
Knee extension/ dorsiflexion/ great toe extension
- A patient comes into your office for an orthosis to prevent glenohumeral subluxation. What positions should the shoulder be placed in?
a. Flexion and internal rotation
b. Adduction and external rotation
c. Extension and external rotation
d. Abduction and internal rotation
Abduction and internal rotation
- How long does Medicare require that medical records be retained for Medicare benificiaries?
a. 2 years
b. 3 years
c. 5 years
d. 7 years
- A patient you fit with a TLSO informs you that the orthosis fits well when he stands, but presses into his throat when he sits. How do you best rectify this?
a. Trim the anterior superior edge
b. Trim the anterior inferior edge
c. Pad the anterior superior edge
d. Flare and trim the anterior superior edge
Trim the anterior inferior edge
- Which diagnosis best fits the following description: A hereditary disease that affects both the sensory and motor peripheral nerves.
b. Charcot Marie Tooth
c. Guillain Barre
d. Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy
Charcot Marie Tooth
What is not considered a carrier of blood borne pathogens?
b. Cerebrospinal Fluid
d. Synovial Fluid
- The primary purpose of an AFO with trimlines posterior to the malleoli is:
a. Knee stability
b. Medial/lateral stability of the ankle
c. Increased toe lever arm for push-off at terminal stance
d. Dorsiflexion assist
- Articulation between the sternum and the clavicle occurs at the:
a. Coronoid tubercle
- How many pairs of nerve roots arise from the cervical area of the spinal cord?
- Which of the following is charged with regulating workplace safety and health legislation?
- Which muscle aids in stabilizing the scapula and is important in motions such as pushing and punching?
a. Serratus anterior
b. Levator scapulae
c. Teres Major
- Which of the following would not be affected by a proximal lesion of the musculocutaneous nerve?
b. Biceps brachii
- Which of the following is not a part of the humerus?
b. Pectineal line
d. Radial groove
- In a double action ankle joint the pins in the posterior channel best simulate what muscle?
a. Tibialis anterior
b. Flexor hallucis longus
c. Peroneus longus
- Which column(s) of the spine do you expect to see damaged in a burst fracture?
a. Posterior and middle
b. Middle and anterior
Middle and anterior
- A patient presenting with hyperextension of the 4th and 5th metacarpal phalangeal joints and flexion of the interphalangeal joints likely has a wrist level lesion of which nerve?
At what vertebral level does the cauda equine begin?
- Damage to which of the following structures leads to sensation deficits?
a. Golgi tendon organ
b. Ventral branch of the nerve roots
c. Dorsal branch of the nerve roots
d. Sympathetic ganglia
Dorsal branch of the nerve roots
- A patient with spina bifida comes into your office after utilizing bilateral AFOs for six weeks. After re-evaluating their muscle strength you will likely tell them which of the following?
a. Continue wearing the AFOs as muscle strength has changed little
b. The AFOs can now be cut to SMOs as pt has recovered plantarflexor strength
c. Add anterior panels as pt’s weakness has progressed
d. Add padding to calf section as pt’s sensation deficit has progressed more proximally
Continue wearing the AFOs as muscle strength has changed little
- During ambulation the body’s center of mass reaches its highest point at:
a. Heel strike
c. Terminal Stance
When the limb moves from midstance to terminal stance what muscle group contracts and in what manner?
a. Plantarflexors: concentric
b. Plantarflexors: eccentric
c. Dorsiflexors: concentric
d. Dorsiflexors: eccentric
- Torque is calculated by:
a. Multiplying lever arm length by force applied
b. Multiplying distance from the joint center by velocity
c. Multiplying the radius by the lever arm length
d. Adding the center of mass vector to the joint center vector
Multiplying lever arm length by force applied
What position is the hip typically in during heel strike?
a. Neutral flexion/extension
b. 15 degrees flexion
c. 30 degrees flexion
d. 40 degrees flexion
30 degrees flexion
- At which joint does upper extremity pronation and supination occur?
- To best minimize gait deviations in a patient with right gluteus maximus and gluteus minimus weakness a patient requires:
a. A cane on the right side
b. A cane on the left side
c. An walker or bilateral forearm crutches
d. An KAFO on the right side
A cane on the left side
- Pressure is determined by which of the following?
a. Force divided by torque
b. Torque divided by area
c. Force divided by area
d. Area divided by force
Force divided by area
- Which of the following arteries does not supply blood to the lower extremity?
a. Superior mesenteric artery
b. Deep femoral artery
c. Popliteal artery
d. Peroneal artery
Superior mesenteric artery
- What is the appropriate torque for halo pins in an adult patient?
a. 4 inch pounds
b. 8 inch pounds
c. 4 Newton meters
d. 8 Newton meters
8 inch pounds
- Why was the L-code established?
a. To develop a unified method of describing products/services to payers
b. To justify to the payers the products/services provided
c. To improve communication between healthcare providers
d. To systematically classify and document patient diagnoses
To develop a unified method of describing products/services to payers
- A patient with a Charcot foot is most likely to present with:
a. A rigid hallux valgus
b. A high cavus arch
c. Weakness in the plantarflexors
d. A collapsed and inflamed arch
A collapsed and inflamed arch
- A patient comes into your office stating her AFO causes her knee to buckle each time she walks down the hill by her house. How will you adjust her AFO to reduce this?
a. Add a firm plantarflexion stop
b. Increase dorsiflexion assistance
c. Reduce plantarflexion resistance
d. Increase the length of the footplate
Reduce plantarflexion resistance
- Which motion is viewed in the coronal plane?
a. Elbow flexion/extension
b. Forearm supination/pronation
c. Cervical lateral flexion
d. Ankle plantarflexion/dorsiflexion
Cervical lateral flexion
- Active plantarflexion of the ankle is strongest when the:
a. Hip is extended
b. Hip is flexed
c. Knee is extended
d. Knee is flexed
Knee is extended
- Venous return of the blood to the heart is assisted by which of the following?
a. Positive pressure in the heart
b. Action of the skeletal muscles
c. Dilation of the arterial walls
d. Arterial blood pressure
Action of the skeletal muscles
- The muscles that pass posterior to the lateral malleolus act to:
a. Plantarflex and evert the foot
b. Dorsiflex and evert the foot
c. Plantarflex and invert the foot
d. Dorsiflex and invert the foot
Plantarflex and evert the foot
- Which of the following muscles inserts on the lesser trochanter?
a. Adductor longus
b. Gluteus Medius
c. Tensor Fasciae Latae
- What are the two origins of the biceps brachii?
a. Coronoid process and acromion
b. Supraglenoid tubercle and coracoid process
c. Bicipital tuberosity and glenoid fossa
d. Acromion and subscapular foss
Supraglenoid tubercle and coracoid process
- Which of the following is not considered a sesamoid bone?
- Carpal tunnel syndrome results in compression of which nerve?
- Opposition of the thumb occurs at which joint?
a. Metacarpophalangeal joint
b. Interphalangeal joint
c. Radiocarpal joint
d. Carpometacarpal joint
- The medial edge of an adult KAFO should terminate proximally:
a. At the transverse plane of the ischial tuberosity
b. 1.25cm (0.5”) distal to the greater trochanter
c. 3.8cm (1.5”) distal to the perineum
d. 5.1cm (2”) inferior to the lateral proximal edge
3.8cm (1.5”) distal to the perineum
- Which diagnosis would be most appropriate to fit with a CASH or Jewett style orthosis?
a. T12 compression fracture
b. L3 burst fracture
c. T6 compression fracture
d. T11 Chance fracture
T12 compression fracture
- A patient presents in your office for treatment off knee pain due to medial osteoarthritis. Which is most likely to improve your patient’s symptoms?
a. A neoprene knee orthosis with hinges to limit flexion to 60 degrees
b. A double upright knee orthosis aligned in valgus
c. A double upright knee orthosis with the corrective pressure on the medial condyle pad
d. A solid ankle AFO with medial rearfoot wedge
A double upright knee orthosis aligned in valgus
- What is the standard clearance for knee joints on a KAFO?
a. 3mm laterally, 5mm medially
b. 3mm laterally, 6mm medially
c. 6mm laterally, 3mm medially
d. 6mm laterally, 5mm medially
3mm laterally, 6mm medially
- The lower extremity is most stable in stance when the weight line falls:
a. Anterior to the hip and anterior to the knee
b. Posterior to the hip and posterior to the knee
c. Anterior to the hip and posterior to the knee
d. Posterior to the hip and anterior to the knee
Posterior to the hip and anterior to the knee
- What percent of the gait cycle is spent in double limb support?
- A patient comes into your office for orthotic treatment for a right thoracic scoliosis, which are you most likely incorporate into the orthosis?
a. Right axillary extension and left trochanter extension
b. Right thoracic pad and left axillary extension
c. Right axillary extension and left trochanter extension
d. Right axillary extension and right thoracic pad
Right thoracic pad and left axillary extension
- A patient states he has worn a ground reaction AFO comfortably for about six months, but recently he switched shoes and is experiencing his knee being forced backward. What would you most expect to see and how will you fix it?
a. Patient switched to a higher heeled shoe and you fix by dorsiflexing the orthosis
b. Patient switched to a lower heel height shoe and you fix by adding a dorsiflexion stop
c. Patient switched to a higher heel height shoe and you fix by adding a forefoot wedge
d. Patient switched to a lower heel height shoe and you fix by adding a heel wedge
Patient switched to a lower heel height shoe and you fix by adding a heel wedge
- What is the normal range of motion for pronation and supination of the forearm?
a. Pronation 65 degrees, Supination 75 degrees
b. Pronation 75 degrees, Supination 85 degrees
c. Pronation 80 degrees, Supination 80 degrees
d. Pronation 85 degrees, Supination 90 degrees
Pronation 80 degrees, Supination 80 degrees
- The measured ML of an anatomical ankle joint is 8.3cm (3 ¼”). What should the inside measurement for your mechanical ankle joint be?
a. 8.7cm (3 7/16”)
b. 9.2cm (3 5/8”)
c. 9.4cm (3 11/16”)
d. 10.0cm (3 15/16”)
9.2cm (3 5/8”)
- The dorsiflexion stop performs the function of which muscle(s)?
b. Tibialis Anterior/Extensor Hallucis Longus
c. Tibialis Posterior
d. Tibialis Anterior
- Taking assignment with Medicare means that the provider will:
a. Accept reimbursement as 80% of Medicare usual and customary
b. Accept the amount Medicare approves as payment in full
c. Accept Medicare payment as 80% and bill the patient remaining 20%
d. Accept all Medicare patients seeking devices described by A-codes (diabetic codes)
Accept the amount Medicare approves as payment in full
- The correct height of a mechanical ankle joint is:
a. Apex of the medial malleolus
b. Apex of the lateral malleolus
c. Distal tip of the medial malleolus
d. 1/3 of the difference between medial and lateral malleolus
Distal tip of the medial malleolus
- Which of the following nerves divides into the common peroneal nerve and the tibial nerve?
a. Sciatic nerve
b. Femoral nerve
c. Saphenous nerve
d. Obturator nerve
- Which components of an upper extremity orthosis would best aid in prevention of a claw hand deformity?
a. Thumb post and IP extension assist
b. MCP extension stop and IP extension assist
c. MCP flexion stop and IP flexion assist
d. Lateral thumb post and MCP extension stop
MCP extension stop and IP extension assist
- A patient with quadriplegia resulting from a lesion at C7 neurosegmental level is most likely to benefit from which of the following?
a. Wrist cock up splint
b. Wrist driven WHO
c. Mobile arm support
d. Static HO
- How many continuing education credits must a single discipline orthotist earn every 5 years in order to remain compliant with American Board for Certification? How many must be Scientific Class I credits?
a. 50 : 25
b. 50 : 50
c. 75 : 50
d. 100 : 75
75 : 50
- How much length beyond the toes should be allowed when measuring in non-weight bearing for diabetic extra depth shoes?
- Can a device that is delivered prior to admission to a hospital be billed to Medicare?
a. Yes: Devices necessary post-surgery and fit prior to admission may billed to Medicare
b. Yes: But only if the medical necessity for the device is independent of the patient’s admission to the hospital
c. No: All devices delivered 48 hours or less prior to hospital admission should be billed to the hospital
d. No: The device cannot be billed to Medicare if the patient will not require it in the hospital
Yes: But only if the medical necessity for the device is independent of the patient’s admission to the hospital
- Which is not true of the thoracic pad in a Milwaukee TLSO?
a. It is typically L shaped
b. It is fitted on the convex side if the curve
c. It is placed over the rib that articulates with the apical vertebrae and one rib superior
d. For a patient with hypokyphosis the pad is directly lateral, instead of posterolateral
It is placed over the rib that articulates with the apical vertebrae and one rib superior
- Which of the following is a benefit of fitting a SOMI CTO?
a. It can be fit with the patient in a supine position
b. The chin rest can be easily removed for washing
c. It can be donned independently using only one hand
d. It restricts sagittal plane motion at C2-C4 better than other devices
It can be fit with the patient in a supine position
- What is the proper placement of the proximal edge of the calf band on a conventional AFO?
a. 20mm below fibular neck
b. 30mm below fibular neck
c. 35mm below fibular neck
d. 54mm below fibular neck
20mm below fibular neck
- What abnormal motion of the calf band will occur if the mechanical ankle joint of an AFO is located too proximal in relation to the anatomical ankle joint?
a. Calf band migrates proximally with plantarflexion and distally with dorsiflexion
b. Calf band migrates proximally with plantarflexion and dorsiflexion
c. Calf band migrates distally with plantarflexion and proximally with dorsiflexion
d. Calf band migrates distally with plantarflexion and distally with dorsiflexion
Calf band migrates distally with plantarflexion and distally with dorsiflexion
- How long do The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services require medical records be retained for their beneficiaries?
a. 18 months
b. 3 years
c. 5 years
d. 7 years
A patient fit with a CASH orthosis is experiencing discomfort under the sternal pad. What is the best action to take?
a. Contour sternal upright to pull pad away from the patient
b. Add low durometer padding to the sternal pad
c. Switch the sternal pad to pectoral pads
d. Loosen posterior strap to reduce three point pressures
Switch the sternal pad to pectoral pads
What is the optimal age for beginning cranial remolding orthosis treatment?
a. 2 - 4 months of age
b. 4 - 6 months of age
c. Before 8 months of age
d. Before 12 months of age
4 - 6 months of age
- A 16 year-old patient suffered fractures of C4 and C5 following trauma received in a motor vehicle accident. Maximum stabilization of his cervical spine can best be achieved with a:
a. Four-poster orthosis
b. SOMI orthosis
c. Milwaukee orthosis
d. Halo orthosis