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Flashcards in MOD 10 - Normal Flora Deck (27):
1

How much microbe there is in the body?

10x10 (14)

2

definition of normal flora

organisms found in a given location in a state of health

3

definition of colonisation

establishment at a site in the body

4

definition of symbiosis

2 or more organism co-exist in close physical association

5

definition of mutualism

both organisms benefit from symbiosis

6

definition of neutralism

neither organism derives benefits or ham

7

definition of commensalism

one organism benefits, the other derives neither benefit nor harm

8

definition of parasitism

parasite benefits at the expense of the host

9

definition of non-sterile sites

have normal flora

10

definition of sterile sites

no normal flora

11

how does a non-sterile site become non-sterile

exposed to the environment directly or indirectly & no mechanisms in place to maintain sterility

12

where are some of the non sterile sites

conjunctiva, nasopharynx, GI tract, skin, vagina, lower respiratory tract

13

how is lower respiratory tract maintain sterility

by surface cleaning (ciliated epithelium and then coughing etc)

14

definition of tissue tropism

propensity for a particular organism to grow in particular habitat

15

where does most bacteria colonise in the skin

sweat glands - moist and nutrient

16

what are some examples of normal skin flora?

coagulase -ve staphylococci, staphylococcus aureus (esp. in nasal carriers, propionibacterium species

17

what is the flora near body orifice?

similar to those in the orifice

18

what are some examples of normal mouth flora?

anaerobes, viridan/oral steptococci

19

what are some examples of normal nasopharyngeal flora?

nostrils - skin flora, Straphycoccus aureus

pharynx - respiratory - streptococcus pyogenes, haemophilius influenzae, streptococcus pneumoniae, neisseria meningitidis, straphycoccus aureus

20

what are some examples of normal stomach and small intestine flora

low pH - less bacterial growth, mainly aerobic bacteria

acid-tolerant lactobacilli, H.pylori

21

what are some examples of normal stomach and large intestine flora

95-99% anaerobes - bacteroide spp., clostridium spp., difidobacteria spp.

aerobic bacteria - enteric gram -ve bacilli - E. Coli, klebsiella spp., enterobacter spp. protues spp. etc

22

what are some examples of normal vaginal flora

pre-puberty - skin flora, lower GI flora (E.Coli)

post-puberty - glycogen produced due to circulating oestrogens - lactobacillus spp. lactobacillus acidophilus, skin flora, C. albicans

23

what are some of the benefits of normal flora

- synthesis and excretion of vitamins - vitamin K and B12 secreted by enteric bacteria

- colonisation resistance - less possible opportunity for outsider bacteria to colonise

- induction of cross-reactive antibodies - may have a protective effect

24

what is one possible treatment for C.diff infection

faecal transplant

25

how can normal flora cause diseases?

overgrowth of normal flora, translocation of normal flora - ie present at the wrong sites, cross-infection

26

which bacteria can cause URTI and conjunctivitis at the same time (translocation)

haemophilius influenzae

27

what can be an example of cross infection of normal flora causing a problem

Meticillin-resistanc S.aureus