Flashcards in MOD 18 - Characteristic of Tumour Deck (32):
definition of cancer
uncontrolled growth of cells which can invade and spread to distant sites of the body
what is another name for tumour
neoplasm - lesion resulting from the autonomous growth or relatively autonomous abnormal growth of cells that persists in the absence of the initiating stimulus
where does carcinoma arises?
where does sarcomas arises?
where does lymphoid/haematopoietic organs
what is the definition of differentiation?
the extent that neoplastic cells resemble the corresponding normal parenchymal cells
what are the usual conception of the benign tumour in terms of differentiation
wide-range of parenchymal differentiation
Most exhibit morphologic alterations showing malignant nature
what are some morphological changes for a tumour
pleomorphism, abnormal nuclear morphology, mitosis, loss of polarity
what is pleomorphism
the occurrence of more than one distinct form of a natural object
what are some examples of abnormal nuclear morpholgy
nuclei appear too large for the cell that they are in, variability in nuclear shape, chromatin distribution, hyperchromatism, abnormal large nucleoli
what is mitosis evidence for?
how can tumour be described histologically
well differentiated, moderately differentiated, poorly differentiated, undifferentiated/anaplastic
what do tumour secrete?
protein/hormone - the more dysmorphic the cells are the more chances they secrete protein and hormone which do not resemble the cell origin
what is paraneoplastic syndromes
it is a set of symptoms which is the consequence of cancer in the body but that, unlike mass effect, is not due to the local presence of cancer cells. instead they are due to the humoral factors secreted by the tumours cells or secreted by immune system.
what are some example of hormone secreted by bronchogenic carcinoma
corticotropin, parathyroid-like hormone, insulin, glucagon
what is encapsulation of benign tumours
rim of compressed fibrous tissue
what is pseudoencapsulation of malignant tumours
rows of cells penetrating margin
how can metastasis of a cancer spread?
direct seeding, lymphatic spread, haematogenous spread
what is direct seeding of metastasis?
neoplasm penetrates a natural open field without physical barriers
what is pseudomyxoma peritonei
tumour remain confined to surface of peritoneal structure of peritoneal structure without penetrating peritoneal
what is the most common pathway for a tumour to spread
through lymphatic drainage
what is sentinel node?
the 1st node in a regional lymphatic basin that receives lymph flow from the primary tumour (identified by radiolabelled tracers)
which way of metastasis is common for carcinoma
which way of metastasis is common for sacroma
when does tumour usually infiltrate first in the circulatory system
vein - thin walls
what is haematogenous spread
Bloodborne cells follow the venous flow draining site of the neoplasm
where does haematogenous spread normally rest initially
first encountered capillary bed - liver (portal) & lungs most common
what is a stroma?
connective tissue framework that neoplastic cells embedded in
what does stroma do for neoplastic cells
mechanical support, intercellular signalling, nutrition
what is desmoplastic reaction of tumours
fibrous stroma formation due to induction of connective tissue fibroblast proliferation by growth factors from the tumour cells
what does stroma contain
cancer-associated fibroblast, myofibroblasts, blood vessels, lymphocytic infiltrate