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Flashcards in MOD 18 - Characteristic of Tumour Deck (32):
1

definition of cancer

uncontrolled growth of cells which can invade and spread to distant sites of the body

2

what is another name for tumour

neoplasm - lesion resulting from the autonomous growth or relatively autonomous abnormal growth of cells that persists in the absence of the initiating stimulus

3

where does carcinoma arises?

epithelial cells

4

where does sarcomas arises?

connective tissue

5

where does lymphoid/haematopoietic organs

lymphomas/leukaemia

6

what is the definition of differentiation?

the extent that neoplastic cells resemble the corresponding normal parenchymal cells

7

what are the usual conception of the benign tumour in terms of differentiation

wide-range of parenchymal differentiation
Most exhibit morphologic alterations showing malignant nature

8

what are some morphological changes for a tumour

pleomorphism, abnormal nuclear morphology, mitosis, loss of polarity

9

what is pleomorphism

the occurrence of more than one distinct form of a natural object

10

what are some examples of abnormal nuclear morpholgy

nuclei appear too large for the cell that they are in, variability in nuclear shape, chromatin distribution, hyperchromatism, abnormal large nucleoli

11

what is mitosis evidence for?

proliferation

12

how can tumour be described histologically

well differentiated, moderately differentiated, poorly differentiated, undifferentiated/anaplastic

13

what do tumour secrete?

protein/hormone - the more dysmorphic the cells are the more chances they secrete protein and hormone which do not resemble the cell origin

14

what is paraneoplastic syndromes

it is a set of symptoms which is the consequence of cancer in the body but that, unlike mass effect, is not due to the local presence of cancer cells. instead they are due to the humoral factors secreted by the tumours cells or secreted by immune system.

15

what are some example of hormone secreted by bronchogenic carcinoma

corticotropin, parathyroid-like hormone, insulin, glucagon

16

what is encapsulation of benign tumours

rim of compressed fibrous tissue

17

what is pseudoencapsulation of malignant tumours

rows of cells penetrating margin

18

how can metastasis of a cancer spread?

direct seeding, lymphatic spread, haematogenous spread

19

what is direct seeding of metastasis?

neoplasm penetrates a natural open field without physical barriers

20

what is pseudomyxoma peritonei

tumour remain confined to surface of peritoneal structure of peritoneal structure without penetrating peritoneal

21

what is the most common pathway for a tumour to spread

through lymphatic drainage

22

what is sentinel node?

the 1st node in a regional lymphatic basin that receives lymph flow from the primary tumour (identified by radiolabelled tracers)

23

which way of metastasis is common for carcinoma

lymphatic spread

24

which way of metastasis is common for sacroma

haematogenous spread

25

when does tumour usually infiltrate first in the circulatory system

vein - thin walls

26

what is haematogenous spread

Bloodborne cells follow the venous flow draining site of the neoplasm

27

where does haematogenous spread normally rest initially

first encountered capillary bed - liver (portal) & lungs most common

28

what is a stroma?

connective tissue framework that neoplastic cells embedded in

29

what does stroma do for neoplastic cells

mechanical support, intercellular signalling, nutrition

30

what is desmoplastic reaction of tumours

fibrous stroma formation due to induction of connective tissue fibroblast proliferation by growth factors from the tumour cells

31

what does stroma contain

cancer-associated fibroblast, myofibroblasts, blood vessels, lymphocytic infiltrate

32

what are some of the non-specific metabolic effects which can be caused by tumours

cachexia - profound weight-loss despite apparently adequate nutrition, Tumour-derived humoral effects that interfere with protein metabolism

warburg effect - Produces energy by high rate of glycolysis with fermentation of lactic acid
Used in imaging – PET scanning (FDG uptake)

neuropathy, myopathies, venous thrombosis