Flashcards in MoD 12 Neoplasia 4 Deck (25):
What are the the top 4 types of cancer and what proportion of cancer incidence do they represent?
What type of cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths?
What factors need to be taken account for when predicting outcome?
availability of effective treatments
What is tumour stage?
Measure of tumour burden?
What system is used to determine tumour stage?
TNM (tumour node metastasis)
Tumour given value I-IV
What system is used to stage lymphoma?
I- no metastases
II- Metastases at surrounding lymph nodes
III- Metastases on opposite side of diaphragm to primary
IV- Metastases in an extra-lymphatic organ e.g bone marrow, lungs
What is Duke's staging used for and what are the stages?
A- invasion contained within bowel wall (muscularis mucosa)
B-Invasion through bowel wall (outside muscularis mucosa)
C-invasion of lymph nodes
D- Distant metastases in other organs most commonly liver (rarely not)
What does grading of tumours measure?
How well differentiated the cells are
Typically what do the different grades mean?
G1- well differentiated
G2- moderately differentiated
Whhat problem can the general tumour grading system have?
What grading system is used for Breast carcinoma?
Assesses tubule formation, nuclear variation and number of mitoses
What are the 4 main types of cancer treatment?
Targeted therapy- drug targets specific receptor or gene
What is adjuvant treatment?
Treatment given after surgical removal of tumour to eliminate subclinical disease
What is Neoadjuvant treatment?
Treatment given to reduce primary tumour size prior to surgical excision
How does radiotherapy kill proliferating cells?
Triggers apoptosis- by causing direct or free radical DNA damage which is recognised at checkpoints
Interfering with mitosis- Double stranded DNA breaks cause damaged chromosomes that prevent mitosis completing correctly
What precaution is taken in radiotherapy?
Shielding of surrounding healthy tissue
Why is radiotherapy given in multiple small doeses as opposed to one large dose?
This reduces the amount of normal cells lost as they have time to recover the population a bit
What do antimetabolites do? Give an example
Mimic normal substances involved in DNA replication, inhibiting them from partaking in DNA replication
What do alkylating and platinum-based drugs do? Give an example
Cross link DNA interfering with replication
e.g cyclophosphamide and cisplatin
Give an example of a plant derived drug and what it does
Vincristine. Blocks microtublulr assembly so interfering with spindle formation
Is chemotherapy specific to cancer cells?
What do SERMs do?
Selective oestrogen receptor modulators (SERMs), such as tamoxifen bind to oestrogen receptors preventing oestrogen from binding. They are used to treat hormone receptor positive breast cancer
What hormones are blocked in prostate cancer hormone therapy?
What are tumpur markers useful for?
Monitoring a tumour after surgery to see if it starts growing again