MoD 9 Neoplasia Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in MoD 9 Neoplasia Deck (40):
1

What is a neoplasm?

An abnormal growth of cells that persists after the initial stimulus is removed

2

What is a malignant neoplasm?

An abnormal growth of cells that persists after the initial stimulus is removed and invades surrounding tissue with potential to spread to distant sites

3

What is a tumour?

Any clinically detectable lump or swelling

4

What is a cancer?

A malignant neoplasm

5

What is a metastasis?

A malignant neoplasm that has spread from its original site to a new non-contiguous site

6

How is the behaviour of benign and malignant neoplasms different?

Benign neoplasms remain confined to their site of origin while malignant neoplasms can metastasise

7

How are benign and malignant neoplasms different to the naked eye?

Benign grow in a confined local area and so have a pushing outer margin while malignant tumours have an irregular outer margin and shape and may show areas of necrosis and ulceration if on a surface

8

What type of cells do benign neoplasms have?

Cells closely resembling the parent tissue i.e. well differentiated

9

What type of cells do malignant neoplasms have?

Can range from well differentiated to poorly differentiated

10

What are anaplastic cells?

Cells having no resemblance to any tissue

11

What can be seen in poorly differentiated cells under the microscope?

Increasing nuclear size
increasing nuclear:cytoplasmic ratio
Nuclear hyperchromasia
more mitotic figures
increasing variation in shapes and size of cells and nuclei (pleomorphism)

12

How are neoplasms graded?

High grade poorly differentiated
Low grade well differentiated
G1, G2, G3

13

What can dysplasia mean other than abnormal development?

Altered differentiation. Mild, moderate and severe indicating worsening differentiation

14

What are the steps in worsening differentiation of skin?

Reversible change- dysplasia - loss of keratin and reduced specialisation
Irreversible- carcinoma in situ - basement membrane intact
Invasive carcinoma- tripolar mitosis, destruction of basement membrane

15

Is neoplasia caused by singular mutations?

No, accumulated mutations

16

What is an initiator?

Mutagenic agent

17

What is a promoter?

Agents causing cell proliferation

18

What combination of initiators and promoters causes mutation?

Initiator followed by prolonged promotion

19

What does the combination of initiators and promoters result in?

Monoclonal population of mutant cells

20

What are the main initiators?

Chemicals, infections and radiation
some of these can act as promoters too

21

Are mutations in neoplasms always from an external mutagenic agent?

No, sometimes germline mutation gives head start

22

What is progression?

the accumulation of more mutations in a monoclonal population causing a neoplasm

23

How do we know that neoplasms are monoclonal?

Study of X-linked gene for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) in tumour tissue from women.
Early in embryogenesis one allele in each cell is inactivated randomly (lyonisation). Neoplastic tissues only express one isoenzyme indicating a monoclonal group of cells

24

Mutations in what two type of genes that regulate the cell cycle favour neoplasm formation?

Proto-oncogenes are activated to oncogenes
Tumour supressor genes become inactivated
A combination of numerous of each must mutate to cause neoplasms

25

What do benign neoplasms end in?

-oma

26

What do epithelial malignant neoplasms end in?

-carcinoma

27

What do stromal malignant neoplasms end in?

-sarcoma

28

What two types of carcinomas can there be?

in-situ: no invasion of epithelial basement membrane
invasive: penetrates basement membrane

29

What is leukaemia?

malignant neoplasm of blood forming cells arriving in the bone marrow

30

What are lymphomas?

Malignant neoplasms of lymphocytes mainly affecting lymph nodes

31

What do germ cell neoplasms arise from?

Pluripotent cells mainly in testis or ovary

32

What do neuroendocrine tumours arise from?

Cells distributed throughout body

33

What are blastomas?

Neoplasms occurring mainly in children formed from immature precursor cells e.g nephroblastoma

34

What are the four polyp names?

papilloma- finger like projections
cecil- long bump shape
predunculated- bud shape
cyst

35

What are glandular benign neoplasms called?

adenomas

36

What type of neoplasm are 90% of cancers?

Carcinomas (epithelial)

37

What type of neoplasms are lymphomas?

malignant

38

Where are teratomas found?

Malignant- testis
Benign- ovary

39

What two types of neoplasms are found in the testis?

Malignant teratoma
Seminoma (malignant)

40

What are benign teratomas also known as and what can they contain?

Dermoid cysts
Teeth, hair etc