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Flashcards in MR 11 The ANS Deck (32):
1

What in general does sympatheitic nervous system do?

Fight or flight
inc HR, force of contraction, bp

2

What in general does parasympathetic nervous system do?

rest and digest
regulates basal activities

3

Where does parasympathetic nervous system originate?

Horn of medulla and sacral regions

4

Where does sympathetic nervous system originate?

Thoracolumbar regions

5

Which neurones are myelinated in ANS, preganglionic or postganglionic?

Pre-ganglionic

6

What are the lengths of parasympathetic neurones?

Long preganglionic, short post ganglionic

7

Where are the ganglia in parasympathetic nerves?

In the tissues innervated by the postsynaptic fibres

8

What are the lengths of sympathetic neurones?

Short pre-ganglionic, long post-ganglionic

9

Where are the ganglia in sympathetic neurones?

in paravertebral chain close to spinal cord

10

What transmitter do pre-ganglionic neurones use?

Acetylcholine
are cholinergic

11

Which postganglionic neurones transmit Ach? What receptors does this activate?

Parasympathetic
activates muscarinic receptors

12

What type of receptors are muscarinic receptors?

Ach
G-protein coupled

13

What transmitter do most sympathetic post gangionic neurones use and on what receptors?

NA
alpha adrenoceptors(a1 a2)and beta adrenoceptors(b1, b2, b3)

14

What type of receptors are adrenoceptors?

G- protein coupled
NA and adrenaline

15

Which sympathetic post ganglionic neurones are cholinergic?

sweat glands, hair follicles (piloerection)

16

What are Non-Adrenergic, Non-Cholinergic (NANC) transmitters? Give examples

Transmitters that may be co-released with NA or ACh
e.g ATP, NO, 5-hydroxytryptamine (5HT/serotonin), neiropeptides

17

What are chromaffin cells?

Postganglionic sympathetic neurones in adrenal glands that don't project to a target tissue but instead secrete adrenaline

18

Where are chromaffin cells founs?

Adrenal medulla

19

What do M2 receptors do and at what site?

Cause bradycardia -SA node
Reduce cardiac conduction velocity -AV node

20

Where are M3 receptors found? What do they do?

Smooth muscle
Bronchial contraction
Inc intestinal mobility and secretion
Bladder contraction (detrusor) and relaxtion (trigone/sphincter)
Penile erection
Ciliary muscle and iris contraction in eye

21

Which receptors are responsible for increased sweat, salivary and lacrimal secretion?

m1/m3

22

Which sypathetic receptors are found in the heart, what do they do?

b1
cause tachycardia at SA node
cause positive inotropy in ventricles

23

Which receptors are responsible for bronchial/intestinal/ uterine relaxation?

b2
sympathetic

24

What are some ANS disorders?

Catecholamine disorders
Central autonomic disorders
Orthostatic intolerance syndrome
Paroxysmal autonomic syncopes
Peripheral autonomic disorders

25

What is familial Dysautonomia (FD)?

Autosomal recessive disorder affecting development and survival of sympathetic and some parasympathetic neurones
Almost exlusively askenazi jewish descent
Infants often present due to feeding and swallowing difficulties
Symptoms include dysautonomic crises, GI tract dyscoordination, CV and resp dysfunction, altered sensory perception, spinal curvature

26

Via which nerve do chemoreceptors in the carotid body relay information to the CNS? What do these sense?

Glossopharangeal nerve
Blood O2, CO2 and pH

27

What is the nucleus tractus solitarius?

The "Second order" sensory neurons in medulla oblongata that primary sensory neurones project onto that integrates all the visceral afferent info

28

What does choline acetyltransferase do?

Combine Acetyl CoA and choline to acetylcholine and CoA

29

What does acetylcholinesterase do?

Break Ach into acetate and choline

30

Where does trimetaphan act, why? What does it do?

Acts on nAchRs at autonomic ganglia
Here but not at NM junctions as receptors differ in structure
Blocks ganglion in anaesthetic procedures

31

How many types of mAChRs are there? Are drugs affecting these used?

5types
Not really very few agonists and antagonists clinically available often as little selectivity

32

What group of receptors does tolterodine affect, what is it used to treat?

mAChRs
overactive bladder