MOD 4 Gastroenterology Flashcards Preview

Medical Terms > MOD 4 Gastroenterology > Flashcards

Flashcards in MOD 4 Gastroenterology Deck (88):
1

Gastroenterology

Gastr/o- stomach
enter/o- intestine
-logy  the study of

2

GI

gastrointestinal
-al... pertaining to

3

Alimentary canal

aliment/o- food; nourishment
-ary... pertaining to

another name for the gastrointestinal system

4

gustatory cortex

Information of taste is sent to the gustatory cortex of the brain.

gustat/o- the sense of taste

-ory ... having the function of

5

Salivary glands

  1. Parotid glands
  2. Sublingual glands
  3. Submandibular glands

6

mastication

mastic/o- chewing

-ation... a process; being or having

7

Deglutition

Swallowing.

(dee-gloo-TISH-un)

degluti/o- swallowing

-tion... a process

8

Pharyngeal

pharyng/o- pharynx (throat)

-eal... pertaining to

A passageway for food as well as for inhaled and exhaled air.

9

Peristalsis

a process of coordinated contraction that moves food

peri- around
stal/o- contraction
-sis... process; condition

10

The four region of the stomach

  1. cardia
  2. fundus
  3. body
  4. pylorus

11

Rugae

deep folds in the lining of the stomach that expands as stomach is filled with food. 

12

Chyme

pronounced: KIME

semisolid mixture of partially digested food, saliva, digestive enzymes, and fluids of the stomach. 

13

The three parts of the small intestine

  1. duodenum
  2. jejunum
  3. ileum

14

Duodenum

(doo-oh-DEE-num)

10-inch, C-shaped segment that begins at the stomach and ends at the jejunum. 

 

A image thumb
15

Jejunum

8-foot segment that twists and turns in the adbominal cavity. 

(jeh-JOO-num)

16

ileum

12-foot segment that absorbs nutrients is completed.

17

Villi

(VIL-eye)

thousands of small, thin structures that project into the lumen (central, open area) and increases the amount of surface area to maximize the absorption of food nutrients and water thru the intestinal wall and into the blood.

18

Large intestine consts of...

  1. the cecum (SEE-kum)
  2. the colon
  3. rectum
  4. anus

19

haustra

puckered pouches on the walls of the large intestine that can greatly expand as needed. Water is absorbed thru the intestinal wall and into the blood. 

20

colon

longest part of the large intestine. It travles thru all 4 quadrants of the abdomen.

  1. Ascending colon
  2. Transverse colon
  3. Decending colon
  4. Sigmoid colon

 

A image thumb
21

peritoneum

(pair-ih-toh-NEE-um)

double-layer serous membrane. one layer lines the walls of the abdominopelvic cavity. the other layer surounds each of the organs.

22

peritoneal fluid

watery fluid that fills spaces between the organs and allows them to slide past each other during movements of digestion

23

omentum

Supports the stomach and hangs down as a fatty apron to cover and protect the small intestine. 

24

mesentery/mesenteric

a thicki, fan-shaped sheet that supports the jejunum and ileum. 

meso-  middle
enter/o- intestine
-ic... pertaining to

25

celiac trunk

an artery of the abodominal aorta. largest artery in the body. supplies blood to abdominal organs.

celi/o-  abdomen
-ac... pertaining to

26

hepatocytes

(heh-PAT-ik)

liver cells that produce bile


hepat/o- liver
-cyte... cell

27

Bile

yellow-green, bitter-tasting, thick fluid. combo of bile acids, mucus, fluid, and bilirubin and biliverdin

28

gallbladder

dark green sac posterior to the liver. stores bile from the liver. 

29

pancreas

yellow gland posterior to the stomach. food in the duodenum causes pancrease to secrete digestive enzymes. 

also functions as an organ of the endocrine system

30

cholecystokinin

(Koh-lee-sis-toh-KY-nin)

cholecyst/o- gallbladder
kin/o- movement
-in...a substance

hormone that stiumlates gallbladder to contract and reliease bile.

31

emulsification

the process of breaking down of fat

emulsific/o- droplets of fat suspended in a liquid

32

HCL

hyrdochloric acid. breaks down food fibers and converts pepsinogen to the digestive enzyme pepsin, and kills microorganisms in food

33

pepsinogen

inactive substance converted to pepsin, a digestive enzyme that breaks down protein foods

peps/o- digestion
-in... a substance

34

gastrin

a hormone that stiumlates the release of more hydrochloric acid and pepsinogen

35

amylase

enzyme that continues the digestion of carbs that was begun by amylase in the saliva. breaks carbs down into sugar and food fibers

amyl/o- carbohydrate;starch
-ase... enzyme

36

lipase

enzyme that breaks down fat globules into fatty acids
 

lip/o- fat
-ase... enzyme

37

lactase

produced by villi of the small intestine. lactase breaks down sugars. simple sugar glucose is the only source of energy that body cells can use. 

Lact/o- milk
-ase... enzyme

38

mucosa

mucous membrane that lines gastrointestinal sstem and produces mucus

39

cholangi/o-

bile duct

40

choledoch/o- common bile duct

41

anorexia

decreased appetie due to disease of gastrointestinal side effects of a drug. or girls who think they are fat.

an-- without; not
orex/o-- appetite
-ia... condition; state; thing

42

dysphagia

Difficult or painful eating or swallowing. A stroke can make it difficult to coordinate muscles for eating. 

dys- painful; dificult; abnormal
phag/o- eating;swallowing
-ia.... condition;state;thing

43

polyphagia

excessive overeating due to overactive thyroid gland, diabetes, or psych illness.

poly- many
phag/o- eating
-ia... condition; state

44

cheilitis

inflammation and cracking of the lips and corners of the mouth due to infection, allergies, or nutritional deficiency. 

(ky-LY-tis)

cheil/o- lip
-itis.... inflammation of;

45

sialolithiasis

(sy-al-oh-lih-THY-ah-sis)

a stone (sialolith...sy-AL-oh-lith) that forms in the salivary gland and becomes lodged in the duct, blocking the flow of saliva. Salivary gland, mouth, and face become swollen. 

sial/o - saliva/salivary gland
lith/o- stone
-iasis... state of; process of

46

stomatitis

inflammation of the oral mucosa.

stomat/o- mouth
-itis... inflammation of

47

aphthous stomatitis

consists of small ulcers (canker sores) of the oral mucosa.

(AF-thus)

aphth/o- ulcer
-ous... pertaining to

48

glossitis

inflammation that involves only the tongue

gloss/o- tongue
-itis... inflammation of

49

dyspepsia

indigestion that may be accompanied by gas or nausea. may be caused by excess stomach acid or reflux of stomach acid into the esophagus, spicy foods, stress, overeating.

(dis-PEP-see-ah)

dsy-painful; difficult; abnormal
peps/o- digestion
-ia... condition; state; thing

50

esophageal varices

swollen, protruding veins in the mucosa of the lower esophagus or stomach. When liver disease causes blood to back up in the large vein from the intestines to the liver, the blood is forced to take an alternate route. 

51

gastritis

(gas-TRY-tis)

acute or chronic inflammation of the stomach due to spicy foods, excess acid production, or bacterial infection.

gastr/o- stomach
-itis... inflammation

52

gastroenteritis

acute inflammation or infection of the stomach and intestines due to a virus or bacterium. Symptoms: abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea.

gastr/o- stomach
entero- intestine
-itis... inflammation of

53

GERD

gastroesophageal reflux disease

(gas-troh-ee-sawf-ah-JEE-al)

Inflammation and irritation due to reflux of stomach acid back into the esophagus. 

54

heartburn

Pyrosis. temporary inflammation of the esphagus due to reflux of stomach acid. 

Pyr/o- fire; burning
-osis...abnormal condition; process

55

hematemesis

(hee-mah-TEM-eh-sis)

hemat/o- blood
-emesis... vomitting

vomiting of blood because of bleeding in stomach or esophagus. 

56

N&V

Nausea and Vomiting (emesis..EM-eh-sis). 

Vomit, or vomitus is the expelled food or chyme. 

57

PUD

peptic ulcer disease

chronic irritation, burning pain, and erosion of the mucosa to form an ulcer in the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum. 

58

adenocarcinoma

cancerous tumor in the stomach that starts in the glands in the gastric mucosa.

aden/o- gland
carcin/o- cancer
-oma... tumor; mass

59

ileus

abnormal absence of peristalsis in the small/large intestines. 

Postoperative ileus-- occus after intestines are manipulated during abdominal surgery and peristalsis is slow to return. 

60

intussusception

(in-tus-suh-SEP-shun)

telescoping of one segment of intestine inside the lumen of the next segment. 

61

volvulus

Twisting of the intestine around itself because of structural abnormality of the mesentery. 

62

appendicitis

inflammation and infection of the appendix. Undigested material becomes trapped in the lumen of the appendix. 

63

colic

common disorder in babies. crampy adbominal pain soon after eating. can be caused by overfeeding, feeding too quickly, inadequate burping, or food allergies to milk. 

col/o-- colon
-ic.... pertaining to

64

colon cancer

cancerous tumor of the colon. Occurs when colonic polyps or ulcerative become cancerous. Linked to a high-fat diet. 

also known as colorectal adenocarcinoma

col/o-- colon
rect/o-- rectum
-al...pertaining to

aden/o-- gland
carcin/o-- cancer
-oma... tumor; mass

65

diverticulum

weakness in the wall of the colon where mucosa forms a pouch or tube. Diverticula can be caused by eating a low-fiber diet that forms small, compact feces. Then, increased intra-abdominal pressure and sraining to pass those feces eventually creates diverticula. 

66

dysentery

bacterial infectino caused by unusual strain of e.coli, a common bacterium in the large intestine. There is watery diarrhea mixed with blood and mucus. 

dys-- painful; difficult; abnormal
-entery... condition of the intestine

67

gluten sensitivity enteropathy

autoimmune disorder and toxic reaction to the gluten found in certain grain. The small intestine is damaged by the inflammatory response. Known as celiac disease. 

celi/o- abdomen
-ac...pertaining to

68

IBD

inflammatory bowl disease

chronic inflammation of various parts of the small and large intestines. there's diarrhea, bloody feces, bdominal cramps, and fever. 

69

Crohn's disease

aka "regional enteritis"

affects the ileum and colon. There are areas of normal mucosa, and then finlammation. There are ulcers and thickening of the intestinal wall that can cause partial obstruction in the intestine. 

70

ulcerative colitis

affects the colon and rectum and cuases inflammation and ulcers

71

IBS

irritable bowel syndrome

disorder of the function of the colon, although the mucosa of the colon never shows any visible signs of inflammation. aka "Spastic colon" or "mucous colitis"

72

polyp

small, fleshy bening or precancerous growth in the mucosa of the colon.

73

pedunculated polyp

has a thin stalk that supports an irregular ball-shaped top. 

(peh-DUNG-kyoo-lay-ted)

74

sessile polyp

mound with a broad base. 

75

hemorrhoids

swollen, protuding veins in the rectum (internal hem) or on the skin around the anus (external hem). This is caused by intra-abdominal pressure from straining during a bowel movement.

76

proctitis

inflammation of the rectum due to radiation therapy or ulcers or infection of the rectum

proct/o-- rectum
--itis... inflammation

77

rectocele

protruding wall of the rectum pushes on the adjacent vaginal wall, causing it to collapse inward and block the vaginal canal.

rect/o-- rectum
-cele.. hernia

78

constipation

failure to have regular, soft bowel movements. this can be due to decreased peristalsis, lack of dietary fiber, inadequate water intake, or the side effect of a drug. 

constip/o-- compacted feces
-ation... a process

79

obstipation

severe, unrelieved constipation that can lead to mechanical obstruction of the bowel. patient is said to be "obstipated."

obstip/o-- severe constipation
 

80

fecalith

(FEE-kah-lith)

hardened feces that becomes a stonelike mass. can form in the ppendix or in the diverticulum. can be seen when an abdominal xray is done. 

fec/a-- feces; stool
-lith...stone

81

hernia

weakness in the muscle of the diaphragm or abdominal wall. The intestine bulges thru the defect. There's swelling/pain. 

They are named according to how easily the intestines can move back into normal position. 

82

incarcerated (irreducible) hernia

the intestine swells in the hernia sac and becomes trapped. the intestine can no longer be pushed back into the abdomen. 

incarcer/o- to imprison
-ated.. pertaining to a condition

83

strangulated hernia

an incarcerated hernia whose blood supply has been cut off. this leads to tissue death (necrosis).

 

84

hiatal hernia

stomach bulges thru the normal opening in the diaphragm from the esophagus. 

(hy-AA-tal)

hiat/o-- gap; opening
--al... pertaining to

85

omphalocele

unbilical hernia that is present at birth and is only covered with peritoneum, without any fat or abdominal skin. 

86

peritonitis

inflammation and infection of the peritoneum. occurs when an ulcer or appendix ruptures. 

87

ascites

accumulation of ascitic fluid in the abdominopelvic cavity. liver disease and congestive heart failure cause a backup of blood. 

88