MOD 4 Urology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in MOD 4 Urology Deck (146):
1

Urinary system

begins with the kidneys. Located in the retroperitoneal space.

2

retroperitoneal space

a small area behind the peritoneum of the abdominal cavity

retro- behind; backward
peritone/o- peritoneum
-al...pertaining to

3

alternate names

urinary tract, GU (genitourinary system), urogenital system, excretory system.

4

genitourinary and urogenital

two systems in close proximity and with shared structures. 

 

5

flank

under the lower edge of the rib cage in the flank area of the back

6

hilum

an area of indentation on the medial surface of the kidney

(HY-lum)

7

hilar

(HY-lar)

hil/o-- hilum (indentation in an organ)
-ar...pertaining to

8

renal artery

enters the hilum. renal vein and ureter exit there. 

9

renal cortex

layer of tissue

A image thumb
10

renal medulla

contains triangular-shaped renal pyramids

A image thumb
11

Minor calix

each tip of the renal pyramids connect to the minor calix, an area that drains urine.

A image thumb
12

major calix

minor calices drain into a common area call the major calix

 

A image thumb
13

renal pelvis

major calices drain into the renal pelvils, a large funnel-shaped cavity that narrows to become the ureter

 

A image thumb
14

ureter

12inch tube that connects renal pelvis to the kidney to the bladder. 

yoo-REE-ter

15

ureteral orifices

the openings into the bladder

16

peristalsis

propel urine into the bladder is the processs called 'peristalsis'

peri- around
-stalsis... process of contraction

17

fundus

dome of the bladder

18

mucosa

bladder is lined with mucosa, a mucous membrane.

19

rugae

when bladder is empty, mucosa collapses into folds called rugae.

ROO-gee

20

sphincter

muscular ring that opens so that urine can flow into the urethra. opening/closing is involuntary and CANNOY be controlled consciously.

21

vesical

adjective form of "bladder"

vesic/o-- bladder
-al-- pertaining to

22

urethra

tube that carries urine from the bladder to the outside of the body

23

external urethral sphincter

muscular ring that CAN be consciously controlled to release or hold back urine. 

24

urethral meatus

where the urethra opens to the outside of the body. (exit point of genital)

25

Urethra in men

7-8 inches long. in men, it's both part of urinary and reproductive system because it transports urine AND semen.

26

prostate gland

spherical gland at the base of the bladder. aka "prostatic urethra"

27

Urethra in women

only 1-2 inches from bladder to external body. Urethral meatus is located anterior to the extrernal opening of the vagina

28

parenchyma

pah-RENG-kih-mah

functoinal or working area of any organ (as opposed to the organ's structural framework). The parenchyma of the kidney is made up of the cortex and the medulla because these areas contain the nephrons.

29

nephron

microscopic structure, is the functional unit of the kidney and the site of urine production

nephr/o- kidney; nephron

30

glomerular capsule

gloh-MAIR-yoo-lar

foermerly known as "Bowman's capsule." First part of the nephron. 

31

glomerulus

a network in the glomerular that contains intertwining capillaries. 

32

waste products

  1. urea, (protein metabolism)
  2. creatinine, (from muscle contractions)
  3. uric acid, (from purine metabolism to construct DNA/RNA)
  4. drugs and products of drug metabolism. 

33

electrolytes

chemicals that have a positive or negative charge and incolude sodium, potassium, chloride, and bicarbonate. 

electr/o- electricity
-lyte... dissolved substance

34

filtration

pressre of the blood pushes the waste products as well as water and nutritional substances thru the capillary pores and out into the ball-shaped collecting area of the glomerular capsule. 

35

micturition

mik-choo-RISH-un

micturi/o-- make urine
-tion... a process

means "to urinate"

36

renin

ren/o- kidney
-in... a substance
 
renin is an enzyme that  creates a vasoconstrictor that causes blood vessels to constrict. 

37

glomerulonephritis

glomerulonephritis
(gloh-mair-yoo-loh-neh-FRY-tis)

glomerul/o- glomerulus
nephr/o- kidney
-itis-- inflamattion of; infection of

kidneys becomes inflamed and urine production decreases. infection usually by strep throat. 

38

hydronephrosis

hy-droh-neh-FROH-sis

hydro--water
nephro/o-- kidney
-osis-- abnormal condition; process

enlargement of the kidney. Due to the pressure from urine that is backed up in the ureter because of an obstructing stone or stricture. 

39

caliectasis

caliectasis
(kay-lee-EK-tah-sis)

cali/o- calix
-ectasis... condition of dilation

the calices of the kidney are enlarged.

40

nephrolithiasis

nef-roh-lih-THY-ah-sis

nephro/o-- kidney; nephron
lith/o-- stone
-iasis-- state of

calcus (kidney stone) formation in the urinary system. they are copmosed of magnesium, calcium, or uric acid crystals. 

41

renal colic

spasm of the smooth muscle of the ureter or bladdar as the kidney stone's jagged edges scrape the mucosa. 

col/o-- colon
-ic-- pretaining to

42

nephropathy

general word for any disease of the kidney. 

43

nephroptosis

abnormally low position of a kidney. sometimes requires surgery, but more often is mentioned as an incidental finding on an xray. 

nephr/o- kidney
-ptosis... state of prolapse; drooping; falling

44

nephrotic syndrome

damage to the pores of the capillaries of the glomerulus. this allows large amounts of protein to leak into the urine, decreasing the amount of protein in the blood. 

45

calcul/o-

stone

46

calculogenesis or lithogenesis

process of forming stones

47

glomerulosclerosis

gloh-mair-yoo-loh-skleh-ROH-sis

glomerul/o- glomerulus
scler/o- hard; sclera
-osis-- condition; abnormal

hardening of the tiny arteries in the glomerulus

48

polycystic kidney disease

congenital disease characterized by systs in the kidney that eventually destroy the nephrons.

poly-- many
cyst/o-- bladder; fluid-filled sac;
-ic-- pertaining to

49

congenital

congenit/o-- present at birth
-al-- pertaining to

Someone with a congenital disease has it since birth

50

pyelonephritis

py-eh-loh-neh-FRY-tis

pyel/o-- renal pelvis
nephr/o-- kidney; nephron
-itis-- inflamation

inflammation and infection of the pelves of the kidneys. Caused by a bacterial infection of the bladder that goes up the ureters to the kidneys

51

Wilms' tumor

cancer of the kidney that occurs in children and arises from fetal tissue. 

52

nephroblastoma

nephro/o-- kidney; nephron
blast/o-- immature; embryonic
-oma-- tumor; mass

Sam as Wilms' tumor. 

53

renal failure

Disease in which the kidneys decrease their urine production, and then stop producing urine. 

54

ARF

Acute Renal Failure

A renal failure where kidneys stop producing urine. It occurs suddenly and is due to trauma, severed blood loss, or overwhelming infection. 

55

Acute Tubular Necrosis

Necr/o- dead cells, tissue, or body
-osis-- condition; abnormal condition

the sudden destruction of large numbers of nephrons and their tubules.

56

CRF

Chronic Renal Failure

begins with renal insufficiency, followed by gradual woresning with progressive damage to kidneys from diabetes mellitus, hypertension, or glomerulonephritis.

57

ESRD

End-Stage Renal Disease

The final, irreversible stage of chronic renal failure in which there is little or no remaining kidney function. 

58

Uremia

Ur/o-- urine; urinay system
-emia-- condition of the BLOOD

Excessive amounts of waste product urea in the blood because of renal failure. 

59

TURBT

Transurethral Resection of the Bladder Tumor

Treatment for bladder cancer.

60

intravesical

intra-- within
vesic/o-- bladder
-al-- pertaining to

61

cystitis

cyst/o-- bladder; fluid-filled sac;
-itis-- inflammation of; infection of

inflammation or infection of the bladder. 

62

interstitial cystitis

interstiti/o-- spaces within tissue
-al-- pertaining to

A chronic progressive infection in which the bladder mucosa becomes extremely irritated and red, with bleeding. 

63

radiation cystitis

caused by irritating effects of radiation therapy given to treat bladder cancer

64

cystocele

cyst/o-- bladder; fluid-filled sac
-cele-- hernia

Hernia in which the bladder bulges through a weakness in the muscular wall of the vagina or rectum.

65

vesicocele

VES-ih-koh-seel

vesic/o-- bladder; fuild-filled sac
-cele-- hernia

Same as "cystocele"

66

neurogenic bladder

neur/o- nerve
geni/o-- arising from
-ic-- pertaining to

Urinary retention due to lack of innervation of the nerves of the bladder. Due to spinal cord injury of some sort.

67

overactive bladder

urinary urgency and frequency due to involuntary contractions of the bladder wall. 

68

Urinary retention

retent/o-- keep; hold back
-ion-- action; condition

inability to empty the bladder because of an obstruction, nerve damage, or side effect of a drug. 

69

postvoid residual

post-- after
void--urinate

Still having urine in the bladder after urinating.

70

vesicovaginal fistula

vesic/o-- bladder
vagin/o-- vagina
-al-- pertaining to

Fistual= Abnormal passageway or connection

Formation of an abnormal passageway connecting the blader to the vagina. Urine flows from the bladder into the vagina and leaks continually to the outside of the body. 

71

epispadias

eph-ih-SPAY-dee-as

epi-- upon; above
spad/o-- tear;opening
-ias-- condition

Congenital condition in which the female urethral meatus is in an abnormal location near the clitoris, or the male urethral meatus is in an abnormal location of the upper surface of the shaft of the penis than at the tip. 

72

hypospadias

hypo-- below; deficient
spad/o-- tear; opening
-ias-- condition

Malee urethral meatus is on the underside of the shaft of the penis

73

urethritis

urethr/o-- urethra
-itis-- inflammation of

inflammation or infection of the urethra. 

74

albuminuria

al-byoo-mih-NYOO-ree-ah

albumin/o-- albumin
ur/o-- urine; urinary system
-ia-- condition; state; thing

Presence of albumin in the urine. Albumin is the major protein in blood.Normally, there is no protein in the urine. Albuminuria is an important first sign of kidney disease. 

75

Proteinuria

proh-tee-NYOO-ree-ah

protein/o-- protein
ur/o-- urine
-ia-- condition; state; thing

Same as albuminuria.

76

anuria

an-YOO-ree-ah

an-- without; not
ur/o-- urine
-ia-- condition; state

Absence of urine production by the kidneys because of acute or chronic renal failure

77

bacteriuria

bak-teer-ee-YOO-ree-ah

Prsence of bactiera in the urine. Normally, urine is sterile. Bacteria indicate a urinary tract infection.

78

dysuria

dys- painful; difficult; abnormal
ur/o-- urine;
-ia-- condition

difficult/painful urination

79

enuresis

involuntary urination at night. 

enur/o-- to urinate
-esis-- a process

80

frequency

urinating often, usually in small amounts. Due to kidney stone, enlargement of prostate gland, urinary tract infection, or overactive bladder. 

81

glycosuria

glycos/o-- glucose (sugar)
ur/o-- urine
-ia-- condition

Glucose in the urine. Indication of an elevated blood sugar level as seen in diabetes mellitus.

82

hematuria

Blood in the urine

hemat/o-- blood
ur/o-- urine
-ia-- condiiton; state

83

hesitancy

inability to initiate a normal stream of urine. There is dribbling and the urinary stream has a decreased caliber. The volume of urine passed is less, and residual urine may remain int he bladder. 

84

hypokalemia

hypo-- below
kal/i-- potassium
-emia-- condition of the blood

A decreased amount of potassium in the blood. Usually due to drugs that cuase the kidneys to excrete excessive amounts of urine and potassium.

85

incontinence

in-- in; within; not
contin/o-- hold together
-ence-- state of

inability to voluntarily keep urine in the bladder. May be due to spinal cord injury, surgery on the prostate gland, unconsciousness, or mental condition.

86

ketonuria

keton/o-- ketones
 

ketone bodies in the urine. Ketones are waste prodcutes produced when fat is metabolized. 

87

nocturia

noct/o-- night

increased frequency and urgency of urination during the night. Nocturia is expressed as the number of times the patient voids each night (e.g. nocturia x3). 

88

Oliguria

olig/o-- scanty; few

decreased production of urine due to kidney failure. dehydration can cause temporary oliguria. 

89

polyuria

excessive production of urine due to diabetes

90

pyuria

py/o-- pus

White blood cells in the urine, indicating a urinary tract infection. Severe pyuria can cause urine to be cloudy or milky, or the number of white blood cells may be so few that they  can be detected only by microscopic exams. 

91

urgency

strong urge to urinate and a sense of pressure in the bladder as the bladder contracts repeatedly. 

92

UTI

urinary tract infection

general category of an infection anywhere in the urinary tract. 

93

BUN

Blood Urea Nitrogen

measures the amount of urea. Used to monitor kidney function or kidney disease. 

94

Creatinine

measures the amount of creatine. Used to monitor kidney function and progression of disease. used with BUN to give a comprehensive picture of kidney function. 

95

C&S

Culture and Sensitivity

puts urine onto culture medium in a Petri dish to identify the cause of a urinary tract infection. 

96

leukocyte esterase

detects esterase, an enzyme associated with leukocytes and a urinary tract infection. 

97

24hr creatinine clearance

collects all urine for 24hrs to measure the total amount of creatinine "cleared" (excreted) by the kidneys. 

98

UA

Urinalysis

Describes the characteristics of the urine and detects substances in it. Uses a dipstick test. 

99

What is not found in urine?

protein (or albumin) is NOT normally found in urine. Glucose is also NOT found in urine. 

Ketones are also NOT found in urine. They are produced whtn the body cannot use glucose and instead metabolizes fat. 

100

SG

Specific Gravity

Measurement of the concentration of the urine as compared to that of water. 

101

Device used to measure specific gravity?

Urinometer or refractometer.

102

Sediment

There are several types of sediment in the urine. Crystals of calcium, uric acid, etc... can become kidney stones. Epithelial clls are NORMAL in urine sediment because they are shed continuoulsy from the lining of the urinary tract. 

103

IVP

Intravenous Pyelography

Procedure that uses xrays and radiopaque contrast dye. The dye is injected intravenously and flows through the body and into the kidneys. It outlines the renal pelves, ureters, bladder, and urethra. AKA excretory urography.

104

Pyelogram or Urogram

x-ray image from IVP

105

retrograde pyelogrpahy

a cystoscopy is performed and a catherter is advanced into the ureter and dye is injected. The dye outlines the ureter, as well as the pelvis and calices of the kidney. 

106

KUB

Kidneys, Ureters, Bladder xray.

Procedure that uses an xray of the kidneys, ureters, and bladder done WITHOUT contrast dye. Used to find kidney stones b4 performing pyelography. 

107

pyelography

pyel/o-- renal pelvis
-graphy-- process of recording

108

nephrotomography

Nephro/-- kidney
tom/o-- cut; slice; layer
-graphy-- process of recording

procedure that uses a Computerized Axial Tomography (CAT) scan and radiopaque contrast dye injected. takes xray images as multiple "sclies" through the kidneys. Can be examined layer by layer to show exact location of tumors.

109

renal angiography

angi/o-- blood vessel; lymphatic vessel
-graphy-- proces of recording

uses xrays and contrast dye. It outlines the renal artery and shows any obstruction or blocakge. AKA renal arteriography

110

Renal scan

Procedure that uses radioactive isotope injected. it is taken up by the kidney and emits radioactive particles that are capture by a scanner and made into an image

111

cystometry

procudure that evaluates the function of the nerves to the bladder.

cyst/o-- bladder

112

CMG

csytometrogram

the cystometer makes a graphic recording known as CMG

113

VCUG

Voiding Cystourethrography

sis-toh-yoo-ree-THRAWG-rah-fee

cyst/o-- bladder; fluid-filled sac
urethr/o-- urethra
-graphy-- process of recording

Uses xrays and contrast dye. The dye outlines the bladder and urethra. The xray image is taken while the patient is urinating. 

114

catheterization

a catheter (flexible tube) is inserted thru the urethra and into the bladder to drain the urine. 

115

catheter

flexible tube

116

Foley Catheter

indwelling tube that drains urine continuously 

117

Suprapubic catheter

Inserted through the abdominal wall just above pubic bone and into bladder

118

dialysis

Procedure to remove waste products from the blood of a patient in renal failure. 

dia-- complete; copmletely through
-lysis-- process of breaking down/ losing (Greek "luo")

119

hemodialysis

uses a fistula or a shunt in the patient's arm. 

hem/o-- blood

120

peritoneal dialysis

Uses a PERMANENT catheter inserted through the abdominal wall.

121

dialysate fluid

-ate-- "composed of; pertaining to"

flows thru the catheter and remains in the abdominal cavity for several hours. The fluid pulls wastes from the blood. 

122

CAPD

Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis

the patient is able to walk around between 3-4 episodes of dialysis. 

123

CCPD

Continuous Cycling Peritoneal Dialysis

a machine inserts and removes fluid several times a night while the patient sleeps. 

124

I&O

Intake and Output

procedure that documents total amount of fluid intake and output. used to monitor the body's fluid balance in patients with renal failure, burns, heart failure, etc...

125

bladder neck suspension

procedure to correct stress incontinence. a sling of muscle tissue or synthetic material is inserted around the base of the bladder and urethra to elevate them to normal position

126

cystectomy

cyst/o-- bladder; fluid
-ectomy-- surgical excision

procedure to remove the bladder because of bladder cancer. 

127

radical cystectomy 

removes bladder, surrounding tissues, and lymph nodes

radic/o-- all parts including the root
-al-- pertaining to

128

kidney transplantation

Procedure to remove a severely damaged kidney from a patient with kidney failure. 

129

lithotripsy

lith/o-- stone
-tripsy-- process of crushing

Uses sound waves to break up kidney stone

130

ESWL

Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy

extra-- outside of
corpor/o-- body (such as corporate prayer)
-eal-- pertaining to

 

131

nephrectomy

nephr/o-- kidney
-ectomy-- surgical excision

surical procedure to remove a diseased or cancerous kidney

132

nephrolithotomy

nephr/o-- kidney
lith/o-- stone
-tomy-- process of cutting or making an incision

procedure in which a small incision is made in the skin and an endoscop is inserted into the kidney to remove a stone

133

nephropexy

nephr/o-- kidney
-pexy-- process of surgically fixing in place

procedure to correct a kidney that is too low

134

renal biopsy

procedure in which a small piece of kidney is excised for microscopic analysis. 

135

stone basketing

procedure in which a cystoscop is inserted into the bladder. a stone basket is then passed thru the scop to snare a kidney stone and remove it

136

TURBT

Transurethral Resection of  a Bladder Tumor

procedure to remove a bladder tumor from inside the bladder

137

resectoscope

Inserted thru the urethra into the bladder that resects the bladder tumor

resect/o-- to cut out; remove

138

urethroplasty

procedure that involves plastic surgery to reposition the urethra. 

-plasty-- process of reshaping by surgery

139

cath

catheterize or catheterization (slang)

140

cc

cubic centimeter (measuring volume)

141

epi

epithelial cell in the urine specimen

142

GU

genitourinary gonococcal urethritis

143

hpf

high-power field

144

K, K+

potassium

145

TNTC

too numerous to count

146

VMA

vanillylmandelic acid