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1

Impressionism

is an account of how the world of reality affects the describer (how the eye processes light, color, and shape). It is, thus, a subjective account of an objective world.

2

Expressionism:

Expressionism is an account of the describer’s internalized concept of the world. It becomes a theatre of the subconscious. It is, thus, a subjective account of a wholly subjective world. An account of one’s own “reality.”

3

Selendrama:

“Soul Drama” The world is reduced to a single vision of the protagonist. It becomes their selendrama or “soul drama.”

4

Cubism

is conceptual. It is how the artist thinks about the objective world from multiple angles. The founders of Cubism, Picasso and Braque, will also experiment with collage.

5

Messianic Drama

A Revolt against a failed God. The playwright attempts to create a new spiritual movement. Its chief philosopher is Nietzsche. It includes the early work of Ibsen, the late work of George Bernard Shaw, the early work of O’Neill, and the operas of Richard Wagner. *Holding a mirror up to God.

6

. Existential Drama

A Revolt against existence. The opposite of the Messianic Revolt, as it concludes that there is no god or any possibility of “salvation” in a meaningless world. Its chief philosophers are Sartre and Camus. We will return to this in two weeks with Samuel Beckett’s Waiting for Godot. *Holding a mirror up to the Void.

7

 

Modern Drama:

 

 

Messianic Revolt

 

Social Revolt

 

Existential Revolt

 

8

Realism vs. Naturalism

Realism: Through Protest attempts to affect change. Naturalism: Through an almost photographic reportage, presents life as it is: “a slice of life.” Ibsen on Zola: “Zola descends to the gutter to bathe in it, while I descend there to cleanse it!”

9

Agon

Classically, is between a drama’s protagonist(s) and antagonist(s). In Expressionism, the audience is the antagonist. The audience represents the world.

10

Elements of expressionist drama

The dialogue is frequently in the form of direct address to the audience. •A later term for this type of delivery was the schrei or “the scream.” •The dialogue is delivered in an urgent telegraphese: quick, abbreviated language, often stream of consciousness. Tangled lines of language spooling out.

11

stationendrama

•Many of the plays are constructed like stationendrama, or the dramas often enacted around the Christian “Stations of the Cross” (a staple of Medieval Mystery plays). •The plays follow the protagonist through a series of agonies, ultimately leading to their destruction: From the beginning to the end of their agonies. O’Neill’s Hairy Ape is in Eight Scenes, Treadwell’s Machinal is in Nine Episodes. Each episode is like a station of the cross..

12

Sophie Treadwell

From California; Mother was Scottish and Father was Mexican. Spent time at providence town theatre interviews Pancho Villa. Her first play on broadway was Gringo, inspired by Pancho Villa. Next play nightingale, not very successful on broadway. Then Machinal 1928; open 9 months after Snyder execution.

13

Expressionism vs. CUBISM

Emotional vs intelectual

14

Avant- garde

new and unusual or experimental ideas, especially in the arts, or the people introducing them. Avant-garde is the French military term for “vanguard” or “advance guards.” It was first used to describe radical art movements in 1825, although we tend to associate it with the latter 19th century and twentieth century.

15

Schrei

a piercing scream

16

Telegraphese

the terse, abbreviated style of language used in telegrams.

17

In terms of Theatre and Drama, the following avant-garde movements are important:

Symbolism, Expressionism, Dada, Surrealism, Bauhaus, Constructivism, Futurism, Fluxus.

18

The gringo

19

Robert Edmond Jones

20

Machinal

21

Massacre of Lviv professors

22

Auschiwitz

23

1944

24

Feb 13-15, 1945

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The toll of war

26

Samual Beckett

27

James Joyce

28

Beckett in France, 1938-1989

29

Existential Drama

A

Revolt against

existence. The

opposite of the Messianic Revolt,

as it concludes that there is no

god or any possibility of

“salvation” in a meaningless

world.

*Holding a mirror up to

the

Void.

30

The basic tenets of existentialism