Flashcards in module 1 cells as a basis of life Deck (49)
does prokaryotic cells have a nucleus?
are prokaryotic cells bigger or smaller?
smaller - very small
does prokaryotic cells have organelles?
does eukaryotic cells have membrane bound organelles?
does animals have cell walls?
does plant cells have cell walls?
function of chloroplast
use light energy, co2 + water to produce glucose (via photosynthesis)
function of the mitochondria
use oxygen + glucose to produce ATP (via respiration)
structure of chloroplasts
disk shaped with a double membrane, DNA and chlorophyll
structure of mitochondria
have a double membrane (inner membrane highly folded)
structure of cell membrane
flexible, semi-permable membrane
function of cell membrane
protect/contain organelles and control movement of substances in/out of cell
structure of cell wall
external structure which surrounds the cell membrane
function of cell wall
structural strength and protection
structure of cytoplasm
watery, gel-like fluid
function of the cytoplasm
suspend organelles, give the cell shape
structure of pili and flagella
external, hair-like appendages made of microtubules
structure of vacuole
membrane-bound, fluid-filled vesicle
function of vacuole
stores substances; tugor pressure maintains shape/structure in plants
structure of the nucleus
membrane bound, contains DNA
function of the nucleus
contain genetic instructions for cell growth, repair and functioning
structure of ribosomes
made of protein and RNA
function of ribosomes
structure of endoplasmic reticulum
network of flat, interconnected membranes - Rough ER --> HAS ribosomes. Smooth ER --> NO ribosomes
function of the endoplasmic reticulum
Rough ER: process and modify proteins
Smooth ER: make lipids
structure of the golgi body
flat, membrane bound sacs that arent connected to each other
function of golgi body
processes and packages substances made in the cell e.g. proteins
structure of lysosomes
membrane-bound vesicle that contains digestive enzymes
function of lysosomes
breaks down cellular waste and foreign particles
explain light microscopes
light passes through condenser lens and through the thin specimem- this beam of light then passes through the objective lens and is magnified qand viewed through ocular lens
explain fluorescence microscpes
similar to light but has extra features
explain electron microscope
uses electron beam and electromagnets --> uses electrons instead of light --> much greater magnification
main 2 types of electron microscopes
scanning electron microscopes
transmission electron microscope
what does the fluid mosaic model describe?
double layer of lids, a lipid bilayer
explain active transport
The movement of molecules from a region of low concentration to a region of high concentration and requires the input of energy through a selectively permeable membrane
Diffusion is the movement of a substance from a region where it has a high concentration to a region where it has a low concentration. Movement by diffusion follows the concentration gradient of the molecule in question.
why is both diffusion and osmosis essential for cells
they allow the movement of substances in and out of the cell's cytoplasm across the cell membrane. These processes occur automatically without the input of energy. Thus, they are said to be 'passive transport'.
when does facilitated diffusion occur
when substances move down a concentration gradient (high to low) but their movement is facilitated by carrier proteins
cellular/aerobic respiration formular
glucose + oxygen = water + carbon dioxide + ATP (energy)
co2 + o2 --> (sunlight chlorophyll) --> glucose + oxygen
what are enzymes
• Enzymes are biological catalysts i.e. they are organic compounds and speed up reactions
at what temp does enzymes denature?
beyond 50-60 degrees
what are the factors that effect enzymes?
substrate, temp, pH
what do autotrophs need to do to obtain energy
Autotrophs need to manufacture their own glucose by the process of photosynthesis e.g. Green plants
what do heterotrophs need to do to obtain energy
Heterotrophs obtain glucose by consuming other organisms and then by the process of digestion breakdown their food into simpler organic compounds including glucose e.g. All animals and fungi
example of an autotroph
example of heterotrophs
all animals and fungi
how is matter made