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Flashcards in module 1 cells as a basis of life Deck (49)
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1

does prokaryotic cells have a nucleus?

no nucleus

2

are prokaryotic cells bigger or smaller?

smaller - very small

3

does prokaryotic cells have organelles?

no organelles

4

does eukaryotic cells have membrane bound organelles?

yes

5

does animals have cell walls?

no

6

does plant cells have cell walls?

yes

7

function of chloroplast

use light energy, co2 + water to produce glucose (via photosynthesis)

8

function of the mitochondria

use oxygen + glucose to produce ATP (via respiration)

9

structure of chloroplasts

disk shaped with a double membrane, DNA and chlorophyll

10

structure of mitochondria

have a double membrane (inner membrane highly folded)

11

structure of cell membrane

flexible, semi-permable membrane

12

function of cell membrane

protect/contain organelles and control movement of substances in/out of cell

13

structure of cell wall

external structure which surrounds the cell membrane

14

function of cell wall

structural strength and protection

15

structure of cytoplasm

watery, gel-like fluid

16

function of the cytoplasm

suspend organelles, give the cell shape

17

structure of pili and flagella

external, hair-like appendages made of microtubules

18

structure of vacuole

membrane-bound, fluid-filled vesicle

19

function of vacuole

stores substances; tugor pressure maintains shape/structure in plants

20

structure of the nucleus

membrane bound, contains DNA

21

function of the nucleus

contain genetic instructions for cell growth, repair and functioning

22

structure of ribosomes

made of protein and RNA

23

function of ribosomes

make proteins

24

structure of endoplasmic reticulum

network of flat, interconnected membranes - Rough ER --> HAS ribosomes. Smooth ER --> NO ribosomes

25

function of the endoplasmic reticulum

Rough ER: process and modify proteins
Smooth ER: make lipids

26

structure of the golgi body

flat, membrane bound sacs that arent connected to each other

27

function of golgi body

processes and packages substances made in the cell e.g. proteins

28

structure of lysosomes

membrane-bound vesicle that contains digestive enzymes

29

function of lysosomes

breaks down cellular waste and foreign particles

30

explain light microscopes

light passes through condenser lens and through the thin specimem- this beam of light then passes through the objective lens and is magnified qand viewed through ocular lens

31

explain fluorescence microscpes

similar to light but has extra features

32

explain electron microscope

uses electron beam and electromagnets --> uses electrons instead of light --> much greater magnification

33

main 2 types of electron microscopes

scanning electron microscopes
transmission electron microscope

34

what does the fluid mosaic model describe?

double layer of lids, a lipid bilayer

35

explain active transport

The movement of molecules from a region of low concentration to a region of high concentration and requires the input of energy through a selectively permeable membrane

36

explain diffusion

Diffusion is the movement of a substance from a region where it has a high concentration to a region where it has a low concentration. Movement by diffusion follows the concentration gradient of the molecule in question.

37

why is both diffusion and osmosis essential for cells

they allow the movement of substances in and out of the cell's cytoplasm across the cell membrane. These processes occur automatically without the input of energy. Thus, they are said to be 'passive transport'.

38

when does facilitated diffusion occur

when substances move down a concentration gradient (high to low) but their movement is facilitated by carrier proteins

39

cellular/aerobic respiration formular

glucose + oxygen = water + carbon dioxide + ATP (energy)

40

photosynthesis formular

co2 + o2 --> (sunlight chlorophyll) --> glucose + oxygen

41

what are enzymes

• Enzymes are biological catalysts i.e. they are organic compounds and speed up reactions

42

at what temp does enzymes denature?

beyond 50-60 degrees

43

what are the factors that effect enzymes?

substrate, temp, pH

44

what do autotrophs need to do to obtain energy

Autotrophs need to manufacture their own glucose by the process of photosynthesis e.g. Green plants

45

what do heterotrophs need to do to obtain energy

Heterotrophs obtain glucose by consuming other organisms and then by the process of digestion breakdown their food into simpler organic compounds including glucose e.g. All animals and fungi

46

example of an autotroph

green plants

47

example of heterotrophs

all animals and fungi

48

how is matter made

through photosynthesis

49

how does waste removal usually occur

through diffusion