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Flashcards in module 4 ecosystem dynamics Deck (40)
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1

what is the study of paleontology

the scientific study of fossils and all aspects of extinct life

2

what is the study of geology

the scientific of the origin, history and structure of the earth as recorded in rocks

3

fossils

law of superposition, fossils in different layers relate to age
darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection

4

aboriginal rock art

depicts flora and fauna of the past e.g. droughts

5

geological evidence

changes from anaerobic to aerobic atmosphere
shown in banded iron

6

microfossils

earlier fossils

7

examples of microfossils

single celled, filamentous anaerobic prokaryotes

8

abiotic factors

light, temperature, water, shelter, topography, chemical components

9

symbiosis meaning

2 species living together

10

mutualism meaning

both organisms benefit

11

example of mutualism

sea anemone (provides shelter and protection) and clown fish (provides nutrients)

12

commensalism meaning

one benefits, the other is unharmed

13

example of commensalism

shark (no benefit), and remora (small fish feed on scraps of prey of sharks)

14

Parasitism meaning

one organisms lives in or on another obtaining food from it

15

parasitism example

head lice (feed on blood) and human (host)

16

predation meaning

one organism eats another -> predator eats prey

17

consequences of predation

predator numbers copy those of prey

18

consequences of competition

If one species is more successful, then the less successful species may be driven to very low numbers or die out completely

19

consequences of symbiosis

• Increased evolutionary diversification e.g. biodiversity
• Development of new species e.g. integration of genetic material and development of eukaryotic cells
• Sources of new capabilities e.g. enhancement in evolutionary fitness

20

what are biomes

group of communities with similar structure and habitats extended over a large area

21

what are biospheres

sum of all ecosystems on earth

22

what are microhabitats

smaller area within habitat (tree canopy) where organisms experiences different environments compared to overall habitat (temp, humidity, sunlight)

23

what are niches

the specific way in which an organism fits into its community or ecosystem, including its actual habitat, use of resources and its abiotic and biotic interactions.

24

what is intraspecific competition

competition between species

25

what is interspecific competition

competition within a species

26

what is the sampling techniques- quadrats used for

throw quadrat randomly into an area and count the population of a certain species. Used for counting small plants or slow moving, small animals

27

what is the sampling techniques- transects used for

to determine variation within the population. Used to count larger plants.

28

what is the sampling techniques- tagging/capture-recapture used for

to recognise the animals that have already been counted. Use to count animals that move and are hard to identify.

29

explain structural adaptations

things you can see, body shape, anatomical features that assists an organism to adapt to abiotic or biotic environment

30

structural adaptations EXAMPLES

e.g. large ears, sunken stomata, flying fish body shape

31

explain behavioural adaptations

actions that an organism takes to improve survival

32

behavioural adaptations EXAMPLES

e.g. seeking shad or shelter, migration

33

explain physiological adaptations

inner body functions

34

physiological adaptations EXAMPLES

e.g. production of concentrated urine, venom, shivering to maintain body temperature, antifreeze in arctic plants

35

adaptations of the Tasmanian tiger

Slim body (better access), strong short legs (run faster) sharp teeth, big jaw (to bite prey) pale brown body, stripes (easily blending into surroundings)

36

diet of the Tasmanian tiger

Carnivore, preyed on small marsupial

37

distribution and abundance of Tasmanian tiger

2000yrs ago - abundantly widespread in Tasmania and Australia.
Before settlement - heaviest distributions were in the north-east, north-west and middle region. Extinct though because of the El Nino, dry climates.

38

how is a line transect carried out?

A line transect is carried out by placing a line along the area to be sampled The length of the transect depends on the area to be studied.

39

how are land transects useful?

Line transects are useful for investigating areas of varying gradient.

40

what occurs in spotlighting

To observe nocturnal animals, use a strong torch and look for eye shine in the tree tops and ground cover.