Module 15 - Urinary, Reproductive, Eyes, Ears and Skin medication Flashcards Preview

Pharmacology Final > Module 15 - Urinary, Reproductive, Eyes, Ears and Skin medication > Flashcards

Flashcards in Module 15 - Urinary, Reproductive, Eyes, Ears and Skin medication Deck (68)
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1
Q

Urinary analgesics - Actions and Use

A
  • Treatment for cystitis associated with UTI’s

- Soothing effect on lining of urinary tract

2
Q

Urinary analgesics - Medication type

A

Phenazopyridine

3
Q

Phenazopyridine - Precaution

A
  • Discontinued in Canada due to safety concerns

- Dangerous for Renal failure, liver failure and blood disorders

4
Q

Urinary analgesics - Side/Adverse Effect

A
  • Headache
  • Dizziness
  • Allergic reaction
  • Discoloration of urine and skin
  • Abdominal pain
  • Vomiting
  • Fever
  • Chills
  • Bruising/bleeding
  • Dyspnea
  • Tachycardia
  • Seizures
5
Q

Urinary analgesics - Nursing Considerations

A
  • Vitals
  • Renal function
  • Allergies
  • Encourage fluid intake
  • Inform patient that drug can cause reddish-orange discoloration of skin
  • Administer with or after meals
  • Do not chew, break or crush tablets
6
Q

Urinary stimulants - Actions and Use

A
  • Cholinergic Agonist or Parasympathomimetics
  • Stimulates muscarinic receptors acts on smooth muscles of urinary tract
  • Improves tone of urinary muscles
    Treatment: Urinary Retention (Post-op)
7
Q

Urinary stimulants - Medication

A

Bethanechol

8
Q

Urinary stimulants - Side/Adverse Effect

A
  • GI symptoms (abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea)
  • Headache
  • Sweating
  • Flushing
  • Fainting
  • Hypotension
  • Bradycardia
9
Q

Urinary stimulants - Nursing Considerations

A
  • Renal function
  • Electrolytes
  • Vitals (BP)
  • Monitor vital signs before and after administration
  • Intake and output
  • Palpate for bladder distention
  • Observe for drug toxicity (sweating, flushing, abdominal cramps and nausea)
10
Q

Urinary Antispasmodics/Antimuscarinics - Actions and Use

A
  • Blocks acetylcholine and inhibit involuntary contraction of detrusor muscles
    Treatment: Overactive bladder and incontinence
11
Q

Urinary Antispasmodics/Antimuscarinics - Medication

A

Flavoxate

12
Q

Urinary Antispasmodics/Antimuscarinics - Side/Adverse Effects

A
  • Tachycardia
  • Palpitations
  • Eosinophilia
  • Dysuria
  • Blurred vision
  • Drowsiness
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
13
Q

Women’s Health - Oral Estrogen-progestin combination contraceptives - Actions and Use

A
  • Used to prevent pregnancy by inhibiting ovulation
  • Contain a combination of estrogen and progestin
  • oral contraceptive begins on day 5 of the ovarian cycle and continues for 21 days
14
Q

Oral Estrogen-progestin combination contraceptives - Medication Types (3)

A

1) Monophasic - most common form, consistent amount of estrogen/progestin in 21 day cycle
2) Biphasic - constant dose of estrogen throughout the 21 day cycle and progestin near the end
3) Triphasic - amount of estrogen/progestin varies during 21 day cycle

15
Q

Oral Estrogen-progestin combination contraceptives - Side/Adverse Effects

A
  • Migraines
  • Risk of breast cancer
  • Elevated glucose
  • Hypertension
  • Weight gain
  • Depression
  • Acne
  • Increased appetite
  • Nausea
  • Edema
  • Breast tenderness
  • Decreased breast milk
  • Thromboembolic disorders
16
Q

Oral Estrogen-progestin combination contraceptives - Nursing Considerations

A
  • Educate on lifestyle changes (smoking, diet, exercise)
  • Assess mood
  • Asses skin
  • Vitals (HR,BP)
  • Precaution use for breast cancer clients
  • Assess for long-term use
17
Q

Hormone Replacement Therapy (Female)- Actions and Use

A
  • Prevent complications associated with estrogen loss
  • Mimic’s estrogen
    Treatment: Unpleasant symptoms of menopause, ovary removal/hysterectomies and osteoporosis
18
Q

Hormone Replacement Therapy (Female) - Side/Adverse Effects

A
  • Stroke
  • Breast cancer
  • Dementia
  • Venous thrombosis
19
Q

Hormone Replacement Therapy (Female) - Progesterone - Action and Use

A

Limits and stabilize endometrium growth

- Mimic progesterone

20
Q

Hormone Replacement Therapy (Female) - Progesterone -Side/Adverse Effects

A
  • Bleeding
  • Weight gain
  • Depression
  • Hypertension
  • N/V
  • Thrombolytic disease
  • Photosensitivity
21
Q

Hormone Replacement Therapy (Female) - Progesterone - Nursing Considerations

A
  • Vitals
  • Assess for bleeding
  • Administration of a progestin in a pattern starting 5 days after the onset of menses and continuing for the next 20 days can sometimes help re-establish a normal monthly cycle
  • In case of heavy bleeding, high doses of conjugated estrogen’s may be administered for 3 weeks prior to adding progesterone for the last 10 days of therapy
22
Q

BPH Medication

A

Alpha 1 Adrenergic Blockers

ex) terazosin

23
Q

Alpha 1 Adrenergic Blockers - Actions and Use

A
  • Relax the smooth muscle in the prostate gland, urethra, and bladder neck
  • Blocks Epinephrine
  • Promotes Parasympathetic response
24
Q

Alpha 1 Adrenergic Blockers - Side/Adverse effects

A
  • Orthostatic hypotension
  • Headache
  • Dizziness
  • Nausea
  • Abnormal ejaculation
25
Q

Alpha 1 Adrenergic Blockers - Nursing considerations

A
  • Vitals (BP)
  • Change positions
  • Encourage fluid intake
  • GU Assessment
  • Cystoscopy
  • Educate on life long management
26
Q

5-Alpha Reductase Inhibitors - Actions and Use

A
  • Converts testosterone to dihydrotestosterone (DHT)
  • Enhances prostate growth
  • Do not use with severe BPH
27
Q

5-Alpha Reductase Inhibitors - Side/Adverse Effects

A
  • Decreased libido
  • Ejaculation dysfunction
  • Impotence
  • Gynecomastia
  • Syncope
28
Q

5-Alpha Reductase Inhibitors - Nursing Considerations

A
  • Take with testosterone
  • GU Assessment
  • Sexual health
  • Encourage fluid intake
  • Assess output
  • Clients should not donate their blood
29
Q

Erectile Dysfunction Agents - Actions and Use

A

Maintain relaxation in the smooth muscle of the penis, thereby increasing blood flow, which enhances an erection

30
Q

Erectile Dysfunction Agents - Medication

A

Viagra (sildenafil)

31
Q

Erectile Dysfunction Agents - Side/Adverse Effect

A
  • Nasal congestion
  • Headache
  • Facial flushing
  • Dizziness
  • Vision abnormalities
  • Myalgia
  • Hypotension
  • Potential for priapism (prolonged erection)
32
Q

Erectile Dysfunction Agents - Nursing Considerations

A
  • Educate on use - Do not exceed 1 dose in 24 hours
  • Educate on contraindication for nitrate use
  • Dangerous for BP
  • Take with meals
  • Avoid Grapefruit juice
33
Q

Glaucoma - Beta Adrenergic Blockers - Action and Use

A
  • Blocks epinephrine
  • Decreases the aqeuous humour
  • Decreases pressure in the eye also reducing Intracranial pressure
    Medication: timolol
34
Q

Beta Adrenergic Blockers - Side/Adverse Effect

A
  • Hypotension
  • Fatigue
  • Nausea
  • Weakness
  • Dizziness
  • Edema
35
Q

Glaucoma - Cholinergic agonists/miotics - Actions and Use

A
  • Constriction of the pupil which allows flow of fluid to relieve pressure
  • Promotion of parasympathetic response
36
Q

Glaucoma - Cholinergic agonists/miotics - Side/Adverse Effect

A
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Bradycardia
  • Diarrhea
  • Salivation
  • Excessive sweating
  • Hypotension
37
Q

Glaucoma - Prostaglandins - Actions and Use

A
  • Decreases aqueous humour in eye and allows flow fluid out of the eye
  • Treats injuries and illness relating to tissue damage
38
Q

Glaucoma - Prostaglandins - Side/Adverse Effect

A
  • Bleeding
  • Hematoma
  • Fever
  • Inflammation
39
Q

Glaucoma - Alpha 2 adrenergic agonist - Actions and Use

A
  • Long term use for chronic Glaucoma

- Parasympathetic response

40
Q

Glaucoma - Alpha 2 adrenergic agonist - Side/Adverse Effects

A
  • Headache
  • Drowsiness
  • Dry mucous
41
Q

Glaucoma - Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors - Actions and Use

A
  • Inhibits the activity of the ciliary processes of the eye
  • Reduces aqueous humor formation
  • Decreases intracranial pressure
  • Used as a second choice to beta-adrenergic blockers have not worked
42
Q

Glaucoma medications - Nursing Considerations

A
  • Vision exam
  • Encourage fluid intake
  • Assess Edema
  • Electrolyte levels
  • Vitals (HR, BP )
  • Educate on waiting 5 min before/after using a different eye drop
  • Educate that vision will be worse immediately after use
43
Q

Ear - Mineral Oil - Action and Use

A

For excessive ear wax of the outer part of the ear

44
Q

Mineral Oil - Side/Adverse Effects

A
  • Mild bloating
  • Gas
  • Mild diarrhea
  • Mild stomach cramps
  • Burning, stinging, or redness of skin (when applied topically)
45
Q

Mineral Oil - Nursing considerations

A
  • Hearing test
  • Administer at room temp
  • 3-5 drops into the affected ear at bedtime
  • Clean out ear in the morning
46
Q

Acne Treatment- Actions and Use

A

Suppressing action of antimicrobial activity

47
Q

Acne - Medication Types (2)

A

1) Topical benzoyl peroxide (Cream) - antibacterial

3) Accutane (Severe acne)

48
Q

Accutane - Action and Use

A

Decreases comedone (papules/blackheads) formation and increases the extrusion of comedone from the skin

49
Q

Acne treatment - Side/Adverse Effect

A
  • Stinging
  • Burning
  • Itchiness
  • Dryness
  • Dry mouth
  • Cracked lips
  • Flaking skin
  • Peeling skin
  • Depression
50
Q

Acne treatment (both medications)- Nursing Considerations

A
  • Avoid direct sunlight
  • Avoid alcohol
  • Healthy diet
  • Avoid stessors
  • Increase fluid intake
  • Avoid touching your face
  • Electrolyte levels
  • Assess mood
51
Q

Bacteria/Fungal/Viral Skin

infection Treatment - Action and Use

A
  • Topical agents (antibacterial/antifungal)
  • Severe infection may need anti-viral therapy
    Medication: neomycin cream/ointment (antifungal)
  • acyclovir (severe) antiviral medication ex) chickenpox
52
Q

Neomycin - Side/Adverse Effect

A
  • Drowsiness
  • Increased thirst
  • Loss of appetite
  • Weight gain
  • Confusion
  • Dyspnea
  • Allergic reactions
53
Q

Neomycin - Nursing considerations

A
  • Assess infection and allergic reactions
  • Encourage fluid intake
  • Encourage hand hygiene
  • Assess LOC
  • Skin assessment
  • Vitals (RR, HR, BP)
54
Q

Dermatitis - Topical Glucocorticoids - Actions and Use

A
  • Reduces inflammation
  • Controls itchy and flaking skin
    Medications:
  • Hydrocortisone (low)
  • Prednisone /mometasone (middle)
  • Betamethasone (severe)
55
Q

Topical Glucocorticoids - Side/Adverse Effects

A
  • Itching
  • Burning
  • Dryness
  • Redness
  • Irritation
  • Headaches
  • Dizziness
  • Nausea
  • Numbness
  • Mood changes
56
Q

Topical Glucocorticoids - Nursing Considerations

A
  • Avoid over use
  • Assess infection risk
  • Skin assessment
57
Q

First Degree Burn

A
  • Superficial burn on epidermis
  • Painful
  • Warm
  • Redness
  • Swollen
  • No nerve damage
  • Does not require immediate medical attention
    ex) Sun burn
58
Q

Second Degree Burn

A
  • Partial thickness burns
  • Epidermis/Partial Dermis
  • Longer healing time
  • Painful
  • Redness
  • Exudate
  • Swelling
    ex) Boiling water
59
Q

Third Degree Burn

A
  • Full thickness burn
  • Epidermis/Dermis
  • Sweat glands
  • Serious and life threatening
  • Nerve damage
  • Necrosis
  • Exudate
  • Requires medical attention
    ex) Exposure to fire
60
Q

Burn Treatments

A
  • Topical Antibiotic cream
  • Ice
  • Aloe Vera
  • Gauze
  • Skin grafts
61
Q

Burns -Antibiotic Cream - Medication

A
  • Neosporin

- Polysporin

62
Q

Neosporin - Action and Use

A

Prevents and treats infections

63
Q

Neosporin - Side Effects

A
  • Itching
  • Swelling
  • Burning
  • Redness
  • Dizziness
  • Rash
64
Q

Neosporin - Nursing Considerations

A
  • Allergies
  • Skin Assessment
  • Encourage fluid intake
  • Educate on not taking when fungal infection is present
65
Q

Drugs for Emergency Contraception

A
  • Should be administered not later than 72 hours after unprotected intercourse
    Medication: Preven
66
Q

Drugs for Emergency Contraception - Side Effects

A
  • Cramping soon after
  • Prolonged bleeding which may continue 1-2 weeks after dosing
  • Headaches
67
Q

Hormone Replacement Therapy (Male)- Androgen - Action and Use

A

Male hormone replacement for testosterone

  • Stimulates the tests to produce androgens
  • Available in IM/SC injections, patches and gels
  • Can also be used as a palliative measure for breast cancer
68
Q

Androgen - Side Effects

A
  • BPH
  • Hypertension
  • Raise cholesterole levels
  • Low sperm count
  • Impotence
  • Behavior changes