Module 2 - Carbohydrates Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Module 2 - Carbohydrates Deck (50):
1

sucrose

glucose + fructose

2

lactose

glucose + galactose

3

hexose monosaccharides

monosaccharides with 6 carbons including glucose, fructose, and galactose; needed to build more complex carbohydrates

4

pentose monosaccharides

needed to build DNA or RNA

5

t/f? Most research shows that ribose supplementation in humans improves athletic performance.

False

6

oligosaccharides

made up of 3-9 monosaccharides

7

polysaccharides

made up of more than 9 monosaccharides
ex. starch

8

Simple Carbohydrates

monosaccharides, disaccharides, sugar alcohols,

9

Sugar alcohols

fewer calories than glucose and often used as sugar replacers in sugar free foods which reduces the number of calories but does not make it zero

10

most commonly consumed carbohydrates:

glucose, fructose, lactose, sucrose, maltose, starch and fibre

11

galactose

monosaccharide that is converted to glucose by the liver

12

tagatose

fructose isomer created in lab which is 90% sweeter and has fewer calories than glucose therefore it can be used in diabetic candy and sugar free foods.

13

disaccharide formation and digestion reactions:

condensation reaction forms disaccharides out of two monosaccharides, hydrolysis reaction separates disaccharides into two monosaccharides

14

maltose

disaccharide produced when starch breaks down

15

glycogen

storage form of glucose found in liver and muscles

16

amylose

polysaccharide; a plant starch made of glucose molecules

17

cellulose

polysaccharide; a form of dietary fibre

18

simple sugar:

monosaccharides

19

mouth

start of digestion; mechanical and chemical digestion

20

amylase

salivary amylase breaks down amylose which is a polysaccharide plant starch

21

gastric emptying

moving food from stomach to small intestine; delayed by fibre creating a feeling of satiety

22

small intestine:

duodenum, jejunum and ileum; 10-20ft long; 1in diameter; villi and microvilli contribute to large surface area;

23

villi

contain an artery, vein, and lymphatic capillary,

24

collection of microvilli

brush border

25

chemical digestion in small intestine

pancreatic amylase and brush border enzymes

26

brush border enzymes

maltase, sucrase, lactase

27

lactose intolerance

condition where individuals can't digest disaccharide lactose due to hypolactasia which is a reduction in lactase activity.

28

what milk is recommended for people with lactose intolerance?

goats milk because it has a lower concentration of lactose mass/volume

29

what % of Canadians self report lactose intolerance
?

16%

30

what are symptoms of lactose intolerance?

diarrhea, abdominal bloating and pain, flatulence, and nausea

31

primary vs secondary lactose intolerance?

primary: changes in expression of the LCT gene leading to a reduction in lactase after age 2-3
secondary: congenital lactase deficiency where a newborn does not produce lactase at birth

32

lactase persistent:

people who can consume large quantities of dairy containing lactose with no symptoms

33

3 genotypes associated with lactose tolerance:

homozygous persistent: no symptoms
heterozygous: less lactase produced resulting in symptoms if there is intestinal injury or disturbance
homozygous non-persistent: least amount of lactase, likely to present symptoms

34

where is lactase persistence most and least common globally?

most: northwestern Europe
least: africa, caribbean, Mexico, asia

35

what might help with lactose intolerance aside from enzyme supplements or lactose free dairy?

consuming full fat milk which causes a delay in gastric emptying.

36

where are carbohydrates absorbed

once broken down in bush border, absorbed in upper small intestine

37

how are carbs absorbed?

fructose: facilitated diffusion
glucose and galactose: active transport

38

what regulates phase of glucose? blood sugar

insulin, glucagon, epinephrine

39

Which organ is responsible for converting galactose to glucose?

liver

40

what are the different categories for recommended carb intake?

total carbohydrate intake
free sugar intake
fibre intake
grain product intake

41

what is glucose used for in the body?

glycolysis to provide energy for our cells.

42

what is a whole grain made up of?

endosperm
bran
germ

43

what does grain refining do?

removes bran and germ

44

what is missing from refined grains in terms of nutrients

fibre
vitamin b
minerals
antioxidants
vitamin e

45

what does research indicate about people who consume whole grains daily

lower body mass index BMI, cholesterol, blood sugar,

46

what is the RDA for carbs?

130 grams of carbs per day

47

define ketosis:

increase in kept acid production by the liver which can provide alternate fuel to the brain when blood glucose levels are low

48

AMDR for carbs?

45-65% of total calories consumed.

49

'bliss point'. What does this term refer to?

The perfect level of sweetness of a product

50

One of the reasons that added sucrose is detrimental to our health is that the monosaccharide (fill in blank) is converted to (fill in blank) in the liver.

fructose, fat