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Flashcards in Module 3 Deck (63):
1

Accommodation

functional reflex allowing the eyes to Focus on NEAR objects

2

Cataracts

CLOUDING of the usually clear lens of the eye, causing a person to see as though looking through a frosty or fogging window
-Leading cause of Blindness worldwide
-Diabetes mellitus increases risk

3

RISK factors for CATARACTS

-High BP
-Increasing age
-cigarette smoking
-Alcohol use
-Female gender
*EARLY detection & wearing sunglasses reduces risk

4

Glaucoma

an acute or chronic condition in which there is an increasing of IOP which leads to damage of the retina and optic nerve, resulting visual field loss.
-"silent thief of sight"
-Normal IOP is 10-21 mm Hg
-If IOP if left untreated, Blindness results

5

myopia

nearsighted-close objects appear clearly, but far ones don't
-SPOTS or FLOATERS
- AGING (over age 40) and requires no intervention

6

Blind spots

-may be constant or intermittent
-may be from GLAUCOMA, VASCULAR SPASMS, or pressure on the ophthalmic nerve from a tumor or increased intracranial presssure.
-ANY REPORT OF BLIND SPOT REQUIRES IMMEDIATE MEDICAL ATTENTION

7

What mat be associated with "HALOS or RINGS AROUND lights"

GLAUCOMA

8

What chart is used for Distant Visual Acuity?

-Snellen Chart
-normal= 20/20

9

Ptosis

dropping of the upper lid may be due to oculomotor nerve (CN II) damage, myasthenia gravis, weakened muscle tissue or damage, or a congenital disorder

10

Exophthalmos

protrusion of the eyeballs accompanied by the retracted eyelid margins.
-Graves' disease (hyperthyroidism)

11

Testing accommodation of pupils

-occurs when the client moves focus of vision from FAR to NEAR, causing the pupils to constrict.
-Normally, pupils CONSTRICT when they focus on a NEAR object and DILATE on a DISTANT object

12

Pupils are __mm and equal in size

3

13

PERRLA

Pupils Equal, Round, React to Light, and Accommodation (far to near)

14

Presbyopia

-impaired near vision
-common in clients over 45 year old

15

Miosis

-Pinpoint pupils
-constricted & fixed pupils
-possibly result of narcotic drugs or brain damage

16

External Structures of the eye

-eyelids
-Lateral & Medial canthus
-eyelashes, conjunctiva
-lacrimal appartus
-extraocular muscles

17

Eyelids purpose are to

-protect the eye from foreign bodies and limit the amount of light entering the eye
-distribute tears and lubricate the surface of the eye

18

eyelashes filter dust and ...?

dirt from air entering the eye

19

conjunctiva

thin, transparent, continuous membrane divided (palpebral & bulbar portion)

20

lacrimal apparatus

-located in the upper outer corner of the orbital cavity just above the eye
-produces tears
-consists of glands & ducts that lubricate the eye

21

extraocular muscles

-6 muscles attached to the outer surface of each eyeball
-control 6 different directions of eye movement
-4 rectus muscles =straight movement
-2 oblique muscles= straight movement

22

ophthalmoscope

-hand-held instrument that allows the examiner to view the fundus of the eye by the projection of the light through a prism that bends the light 90 degrees.
-Darken room to allow pupils to dilate
-do not use your right eye to examine the client's left eye or vise versa, your noses will bump

23

In the event of an eye trauma in which the client is experiencing eye pain, discomfort, or something in the eye observe for:

-foreign body that remains after gentle washing
-perforated globe
-blood in eye

24

in the case for BLUNT eye trauma observe for:

-lid swollen shut
-blood in anterior chamber
-white/hazy cornea
-irregularly shaped, fixed, dilated, or constricted pupil

25

strabismus (tropia)

-a constant malalignment of the eye axis
-defined according to the direction toward which the eye drifts and may cause amblyopia

26

Esotropia

Eye turns INWARD

27

Exotropia

eye turns OUTWARD

28

Nystagmus

-as oscillating (shaking) movement of the eye
-may be associated with an inner ear disorder, MS, brain lesions, or narcotics use

29

Assess RINGING in the EARS (tinnitus)?

-Do you experience any ringing, roaring, or crackling in your ears?
-May be associated with excessive earwax build up, high BP

30

Vertigo

-true spinning motion
-may be associated with inner-ear problem
-Do you ever feel like you or the room are spinning? Do you ever feel dizzy or unbalanced?

31

Otitis externa

-"swimmer's ear"
-can occur when water stays in the ear canal for long periods of time, providing the perfect environment for germs to grow and infect the skin
-Do you spend a lot of time swimming or in water? Do you protect your ears when you swim?

32

how To examine external ear of an adult you...

pull auricle UPWARD & BACK

33

how To examine external ear of a CHILD you...

pull the auricle DOWN & BACK

34

conductive hearing loss

something blocks or impairs the passage of vibrations from getting to the inner ear
-e.g. impacted cerumen, otitis media, foreign body, perforated tympanic membrane, drainage in the middle ear, or otosclerosis

35

Sensorineural or perceptual hearing loss

damage is located in the INNER EAR
-e.g.- organ of Corti, CN VIII (vestibulocochlear/ acoustic), or temporal lobe of the brain

36

Presbycusis

refers to the gradual hearing loss common after the age of 50 years

37

cerumen

ear wax
-natural, self cleaning agent that should not be regularly removed unless it is causing a problem
-avoid using instruments to remove wax from ears due to the chance of impacting it further
-use a warm, moist washcloth to clean outside of the ears
-see professional care for wax removal

38

otitis media

-inflammation of he MIDDLE ear

39

weber test

-Activate a tuning fork & place on pt's head or forehead
-Ask, "please tell me if you hear the sound better in 1 ear than the other or if you hear it EQUALLY in both ears."
-EXPECTED REPORT- hears sounds EQUALLY in BOTH ears
-Conductive hearing loss- client hears the sound in the "poor" ear
-Sensorineural hearing loss- sound is louder in the "good" ear

40

Rinne Test

-Compares air & bone conduction
-Activate a tuning fork, & place the handle tip on the mastoid bone, just behind the auricle of one ear
-ask, "when you stop hearing the sound"
-after pt stops hearing the sound, hold the tuning fork in front of the auricle and ask "tell me when the sound stops
-EXPECTED REPORT- air conduction is approximately twice as long as bone conduction

41

Romberg Test

-test of equilibrium
-ask pt to stand with feet together, arms at sides & eyes open, then with eyes closed
-EXPECTED REPORT- client maintains position for 20 seconds w/out swaying or with minimal swaying
-if pt moves the feet apart to prevent falling from a loss of balance it can indicate a Vestibular (inner ear) problem

42

Acute Otitis Media

(Abnormality of the Tympanic membrane)

-red, bulging membrane
-decreased or absent light reflex

43

Serous Otitis Media

(Abnormality of the Tympanic membrane)

Yellowish bulging membrane with bubbles behind it

44

Blue/Dark Red tympanic membrane

(Abnormality of the Tympanic membrane)

indicates blood behind eardrum due to trauma

45

Scarred Tympanic Membrane

(Abnormality of the Tympanic membrane)

white spots and streaks indicate scarring from infections

46

Perforated Tympanic Membrane

(Abnormality of the Tympanic membrane)

Perfusion results from rupture caused by increased pressure, usually from untreated infection or trauma

47

Retracted Tympanic Membrane

(Abnormality of the Tympanic membrane)

Prominent landmarks are caused by negative ear pressure due to obstructed eustachian tube or chronic otitis media

48

Darwin's Tubercle

-clinically insignificant projection, may be seen on the auricle
-No discharge should be present
-normal finding

49

foul smelling, sticky, yellow discharge

otitis externa or impacted foreign body

50

bloody, purulent discharge

otitis media with ruptured tympanic membrane

51

blood or watery drainage (cerebrospinal fluid)

skull trauma

52

otoscope

flashlight-type viewer used to visualize the external/ middle ear

53

Gum disease- age related

-red swollen gums that bleed easily occur in early gum disease (gingivitis)
-destruction of the gums w/tooth loss occurs in more advanced gum disease(periosontitis)
-gums recede, become ischemic, & undergo fibrotic changes as the person ages

54

Acute sinusitis

-temporary infection of the sinus
-pain, tenderness, swelling & pressure around the eyes, cheeks, nose or forehead

55

chronic sinusitis

-sinuses become inflamed & swollen
-symptoms last 12 weeks or longer even with treatment

56

(Assessment of visual acuity)

consensual response

exposure to light in one eye results in constrition of the pupil in the oppposite eye

57

Nosebleeds are most commonly due to

-dry nasal membranes
-nose picking
-acute & chronic sinusitis
-allergies
-colds

58

Rhinorrhea

-thin, watery, clear nasal drainage
-can indicate a chronic allergy
-past head injury
-cerebrospinal fluid leak

59

mucous drainage, especially yellow, is typical of?

-a cold
-rhinitis
-sinus infection

60

Dysphagia

difficulty swallowing
-increases risk for aspiration
-difficulty chewing, swallowing, or moving the tongue or jaws may be a late sign of ORAL CANCER

61

luekoplakia

-thick white patch of cells in the oral cavity that may be precancerous
-inspect the buccal mucosa
-may be seen in chronic irritation & smoking

62

thrush

-whitish, curd-like patches that scrape off over reddened mucosa & bleed easily

63

the side of the tongue is the most common site of

tongue cancer