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Flashcards in Module 3 Deck (85):
1

The normal extensibility of all soft tissues that allow the full ROM of a joint

flexibility

2

Capability to be elongated or stretched

extensibility

3

The combination of flexibility and the nervous system's ability to control this range of motion efficiently

dynamic ROM

4

The tendency of the body to seek the least resistance during functional movement patterns

relative flexibility

5

muscle imbalance - define

alteration of muscle length surrounding a joint

6

reciprocal inhibition

the ability to contract a muscle and relax the antagonist to allow movement to take place

7

autogenic inhibition

where the tension is greater than the contraction providing an inhibitory effect to the muscle spindles

8

the concept of muscle inhibition, caused by a tight agonist, which inhibits the functional antagonist.

alter reciprocal inhibition

9

when the inappropriate muscle takes over against a weak prime mover

synergist dominance

10

altered forces at the joint that result in abnormal muscular activity and impaired neuromuscular communication at the joint

altered arthokinematics

11

arthokinematics

motion of the joints in the body

12

consistency repeating the same pattern of motion which may place abnormal stress on the body is defined as..

pattern overload

13

states that the soft tissue models along the lines of stress

Davis's Law

14

static stretching

taking a muscle to the point of tension and holding the stretch for a min. of 30 secs

15

active-isolated stretching

the process of using agonists and synergists to dynamically move the join into a ROM

contracting the antagonist when stretching the agonist to get a deeper stretch.

16

dynamic stretching

using force production and momentum to move the joint through a full available ROM

17

What are the phases of the integrated flexibility continuum?

1. corrective (stabilization)
2. active isolated (strength)
3. functional (power)

18

what stretches does the client need to do for corrective flexibility and what is the mechanism of action?

SMR (hold min 30 secs)
Static stretching

Autogenic inhibitition
Reciprocal inhibitition

19

what stretches does the client need to do for active isolated flexibility and what is the mechanism of action?

SMR
active isolated stretches

Reciprocal inhibition

20

what stretches does the client need to do for functional flexibility and what is the mechanism of action?

SMR
dynamic stretches

Reciprocal inhibition

21

what kind of muscles needs to be stretched ONLY?

shorten/overactive muscles

22

what kind of muscles needs to be strengthed?

lengthed/underactive muscles

23

what kind of change is the muscle spindles sensitive to?

rate of the change in length

24

what kind of change is the Golgi tendon organs sensitive to?

rate of tension. Tension in the tendon.

25

what kind of flexibility does the client need to do if they display postural distortion?

corrective flexibility

26

what does the client need to have before moving to functional flexibility?

no postural distortion patterns
core strength
good levels of tissue extensibility
balance capabilities

27

what stretches can you do before and after workouts?

static stretches to bring muscles back to their original length

28

purpose of corrective flexibility?

increase joint ROM
improve muscle imbalances
correct altered joint motion
used for phase 1

29

purpose of active flexibility?

improved extensibility of soft tissue
allow agonist and synergist muscles to move through full ROM while the antagonist is stretched
phase 2, 3, 4

30

purpose of functional flexibility?

maintain integrated, multiplanar soft tissue extensibility and optimal neuromuscular control: full ROM
phase 5

31

how long should you hold an SMR ?

min. 30 secs

32

what are the acute variables for static stretching?

hold each stretch for 30 secs
1-3 sets

33

what are the acute variables for active stretching?

hold a stretch for 1-2 seconds
5-10 reps
1-2 sets

34

what are the acute variables for dynamic stretching?

1-2 sets
3-10 exercises
10-15 reps

35

the ability of the circulatory and respiratory systems to supply oxygen-rich blood to skeletal muscles during sustained physical activity.

cardiorespiratory fitness

36

cardioresp. training program that systematically progresses clients through various stages to achieve optimal levels of physiological, physical and performance adapation

integrated cardioresp. fitness

37

what are the 3 stages of cardio?

warm up
conditioning
cool down

38

what are the two types of warm-ups and define them?

general warm-up - low-intensity warm-ups not related to the exercise itself.

specific warm-ups - low intensity warms up specific to the exercise you will be performing (ex. body squats, pushups, etc.)

39

what does the FITTE principal stand for?

frequency
intensity
time
type
enjoyment

40

what is the recommend aerobic recommendations?

min. 5x a week - 150 mins moderate
min. 3x a week - 75 mins vigorous intensity
min of 3-5x a week - a mixture of both

41

what is the gold standard to measure the cardio intensity of a client?

Peak vo2 method but it is not always available and requires the client to work at its max capacity.

42

which method is more accurate to measure target heart rate?

HRR (Karoven method) is better than MHR (220-age)

43

What the does HRR require?

It requires the difference between the HRmax and HRrest x the desired intensity.

44

what are two ways to measure intensity if a client does not have any heart rate monitor on?

RPE 6-20 (borgs scale)
talk test method

45

what is the intensity for zone 1 training? include an example of this

65-75% (12-13 RPE)
walking or jogging

46

what is the intensity for zone 2 training? include an example of this

76-85% (14-16 RPE)
group fitness classes, spinning

47

what is the intensity for zone 3 training? include an example of this

86-95% (17-19 RPE)
sprinting

48

the highest rate of oxygen transport and utilization achieved at maximal physical exertion

VO2 max - maximal oxygen consumption

49

the difference between resting and maximal oxygen consumption?

Oxygen uptake reserve (VO2R)

50

the point during graded exercise in which ventilation increases disproportionately to oxygen uptake and switch from aerobic to anaerobic energy production

Ventilatory threshold

51

what are the 3 things that aerobic exercise should include?

1. large muscle group
2. be rhythmic
3. be continuous in nature

52

stage 1 cardio (stabilization)

used to improve cardio for apparently healthy sed.

uses HR zone 1
individuals
work to 30-60 mins of exercise

53

stage 2 cardio (strength)

for an individual with low-mod cardio fitness who are ready to train at higher intensities.

uses HR zone 2 intervals, recover in zone 1
1 min in zone 2, 3 mins zone 1 ( (1:3 work/rest ratio)
work up to 1:2, or 1:1 ratio

54

stage 3 cardio (power)

for advanced exercises with mod-high cardio fitness level. increase capacity of the energy system

performed once per week

uses HR zone 1, 2, 3
2 min zone 2, 1 min zone 3, 1 min zone 2, 1 min zone 3

(2:1:1:1)

55

very light RPE

<10

56

light RPE

10-11

57

moderate RPE

12-13

58

hard RPE

14-16

59

very hard RPE

17-19

60

maximal RPE

20

61

the number of training sessions in a given timeframe

frequency

62

the level of demand that a given activity is placed on the body

intensity

63

the length of time an individual is engaged in a given activity (per week)

time

64

the type of physical activity being performed

type

65

the amount of pleasure derived from the training session

enjoyment

66

what are the benefits of HIGH volume/ LOW intensity?

increased muscle cross-sectional area
improved blood lipid serum
increased metabolic rate

67

what are the benefits of LOW volume/HIGH intensity?

increased rate of force production
increased motor unit recruitment
increase motor unit synchronization

68

what are the three different systems of the core?

local stabilization
global stabilization
movement system

69

where does the local stabilization muscles directly attach?

the vertebrae, work to protect the spinal cord

70

where does the global stabilization muscles directly attach?

attach from the spine to the pelvis. Helps stabilize the entire LPHC during functional movements

71

what about the movement system muscles?

responsible for movement throughout the LPHC

72

list the local stabilization system muscles

transverse abdominis
internal obliques
diaphram
pelvic floor muscles
lumbar multifidus

73

list the global stabilization system muscles

rectus abdominis
quadratus lumborum
psoas
external obliques
glute medius
adductors complex

74

list the movement system muscles

lats dorsi
hip flexors
hamstrings complex
quads

75

a maneuver used to recruit the local stabilizers by drawing the navel in towards the spine

drawing in maneuver (local stabilization system)

76

occurs when you have contracted both the abdominal, lower back, buttocks muscles at the same time

bracing (global stabilization system)

77

core stabilization (stabilization) acute variables

1-4 sts
12-20 reps
4/2/1 tempo

78

define core stabilization phase

involve little motion through the spine and pelvis

79

examples of core stabilization

marching
prone iso abs
floor bridge
floor prone cobra

80

define core strength (strength) acute variables

2-3 sets
8-12 reps
optional for hypertrophy and max strength

81

define core strength phase

more dynamic eccentric and concentric movements of the spine through ROM

82

define core power (power) acute variables

2-3 sets
8-12 reps
as fast as can be controlled

83

define core power phase

improve the rate of force production of core

84

examples of core strength exercises

ball crunch
back extensions
reverse crunch
cable rotation

85

examples of core power exercises

rotation chest pass
ball medicine pullover throw
front MB oblique throw
soccer throw