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Flashcards in Module 7.2 Deck (127):
1

associated with stress and anxiety, may result in headache, fatigue, poor circulation, or poor sleep patterns

Abnormal breathing patterns

2

the highest rate of oxygen transport and utilization achieved at maximal physical exertion

maximal oxygen consumption (Vo2 MAX)

3

what are the two respiratory passages?

conducting airways
respiratory airways

4

where air travel through before entering the respiratory airways

conducting airways

5

collect the channel air coming from conducting airway

respiratory airways

6

3.5 ml x kg x min = 1 metabolic equivalent (MET) is what kind of formula?

resting oxygen consumption

7

cardiorespiratory exercise help decreases...

resting HR, cholesterol, blood pressure, and the risks of heart disease, blood clots, depression, anxiety, obesity and diabetes.

8

study of energy in the human body

bioenergetic

9

a process of which nutrients are acquired, transported, used and disposed of by the body

metabolism

10

what is the ultimate source of energy

SUN

11

what are the main sources of chemical energy?

carbs
fats
protein

12

what does food have to be broken down before it used as energy?

substrates

13

the material or substance on which an enzyme acts

substrates

14

Adenosine Triphosphate

ATP

15

what are carbs when they are broken down?

glucose, a simple sugar

16

requires oxygen is known as

aerobic

17

requires no oxygen is known as

anaerobic

18

energy storage and transfer unit within cells

ATP

19

where the body can no longer produce enough energy with normal oxygen intake

Anaerobic threshold

20

elevation of metabolism after exercise

Excess post oxygen consumption (EPOC)

21

what are the 3 types of the energy systems?

ATP-PC
Glycolysis
Oxidative System

22

what is the benefit of using fat as energy?

an inexhaustible supply of fat for prolonged exercise.

23

what is the substrate of fats?

triglycerides

24

ATP - PC energy system

anaerobic
high intensity
10-15 secs

ex. sprints, low reps, high loads

25

Glycolysis system

anaerobic
breakdown of glucose
mod-to high intensity
30-50 secs

ex, typical fitness workouts of 8-12 reps

26

Oxidative system

uses the aid of oxygen to generate ATP.

Aerobic glycolysis -> Krebs cycle -> Electron transport chain
Long term energy

1 min-2 mins

27

what is the process called when protein becomes the main source of fuel?

gluconeogenesis

28

what are the two acids built up in the glycolysis system?

lactic acid (anaerobic)
pyruvic acid (aerobic)

29

fat produces more ATP but uses MORE oxygen than carbs T/F

TRUE

30

Using oxygen takes longer to generate ATP than without oxygen T/F

TRUE

31

breakdown of triglycerides into smaller subunits called free fatty acids to convert FFA into Acyl-COA, which are available to enter the Krebs Cycle & lead to the production of additional ATP.

B-Oxidation

32

the ability to recover quickly

paramount

33

a respiratory quotient of 1.0 indicates what?

Carbs are supplying the fuel

34

a respiratory quotient of .7 indicates what?

fat is supplying the fuel

35

a respiratory quotient of .7-1.0 indicates what?

a mixture of both carbs and fat as the fuel source

36

protein cannot be used as energy until it..

turns into glucose through the glucogenesis process

37

what is the energy system we used for sustain exercise and at rest?

oxidative system

38

high intensity/sprint uses....

anaerobic (ATP-PC/Glycolysis)

39

walk/steady state

aerobic (oxidative)

40

science concerned with internal and external forces acting on the body

biomechanics

41

influence applied by one object to another accelerates or decelerates the second object.

Force

42

a force that produces rotation

Torque

43

the closer the load to the point of rotation, the less torque it creates (T/F)

True - bent arm is easier than straight arm.

44

rigid 'bar' that rotates around a stationary fulcrum

Lever

Bones are LEVER

45

What are the three classes of the Lever?

1st fulcrum (rest) in the middle
2nd resistance in the middle
3rd effort in the middle (most common on human limbs)

46

1st class lever example

nodding head (rest in the middle)

47

2nd class lever example

calf raise
push up

48

3rd class lever example

bicep curl (most common in human limbs)

49

the study of applying laws of mechanics and physics to determine how forces affect human movement & to better predict performance in athletic events

biomechanics

50

above the point of reference

superior

51

below the point of reference

inferior

52

positioned nearest the center of the body, or point of reference

proximal

53

positioned farthest from the center of the body or point of reference

distal

54

the front of the body

anterior

55

the back of the body

posterior

56

farther from the middle of the body

lateral

57

closer to the middle of the body

medial

58

on the opposite side of the body

contralateral

59

on the same side of the body

Ipsilateral

60

list the anatomic location

superior
inferior
proximal
distal
medial
lateral
contralateral
Ipsilateral

61

what are the plane of motion?

sagittal
frontal
transverse

62

Frontal plane consists of what type of motions

side to side
abduction/adduction
inversion/eversion
lateral flexion (spine bends one side to another)

63

sagittal plane consists of what type of motions?

flexion/extension
up and down

64

transverse plane consists of what type of motion?

Rotation
horizontal ab/adduction
horizontal flexion/extension
supination/pronation

65

examples of front plane exercises

side lateral raises, side lunge, side shuffle

66

examples of sagittal plane exercises

bicep curls, tricep push down, squats

67

examples of transverse plane

throwing, golfing, swinging a bat, trunk rotation

68

arms are on the side with the palm faced forward. Terms such as anterior, posterior, medial, lateral, ab/adduction apply to the body with it is in this position

anatomic position

69

what axis is frontal plane in?

coronal

70

what axis is sagittal plane in?

anterior-posterior

71

what axis is transverse plane in?

longitudinal

72

bending movement; decrease relative angle between segments

flexion

73

straightening movement; increases relative angle between segments

extension

74

extension of the ankle

plantar flexion

75

flexion of the ankle

dorsi flexion

76

movement in the frontal plane away from the middle

abduction

77

movement in the frontal plane towards the middle

adduction

78

transverse plane arm movement from anterior to lateral

horizontal abduction

79

what is an example of horizontal abduction?

chest flies, push ups, chest presses

OR when hips are flexed at a 90 degree. Ex. seated hip abduction/adduction

80

transverse plane arm movement from lateral to anterior

horizional adduction

81

rotation toward the middle of the body

internal rotation

82

rotation away from the middle of the body

external rotation

83

what are the scapular motions?

retraction
protraction
depression
elevation

84

what is the motion of scapula retraction

adduction - towards the midline

85

what is the motion of scapula protraction?

abduction - away from the midline

86

what is motion of scapula depression

inferior

87

what is the motion of scapula elevation?

superior

88

what are the three types of muscle actions?

isotonic
isometric
isokinetic

89

isotonic includes...

eccentric and concentric
(the negative/deceleration & acceleration)

90

isometrics includes...

the stabilizing portion (the pauses)

91

isotonic =

constant muscle tension

92

isometric =

constant muscle length

93

isokinetic =

constant velocity (speed) of motion

94

what happens to myosin and actin during the eccentric phase?

they are pulled apart from each other - allow the muscles to be at its resting length

95

what happens to myosin and actin during the concentric phase?

they overlap each other (cross-bridges) the sliding filament theory.

96

force is produced, muscle tension is developed & movement occur through a given ROM

isotonic

97

when the muscle is exerting force equals to the force being placed on it leading to no visible change in muscle length

isometric

98

when a muscle shortens at a constant speed over the full ROM

isokinetic

99

where is isokinetic used?

mainly on machines and limited to rehab labs only.

100

moving in the opposite direction of force accelerates or produces force; muscle shortens

concentric

101

muscle develops tension while lengthening, decelerates forces

eccentric

102

a muscular force equal resistive force stabilizes forces; no change in muscle length

isometric

103

as the velocity of contraction increases, concentric force decreases, and eccentric force increases.

force-velocity curve.

104

resting length of a muscle and the tension it can produce at that length

length-tension relationship

105

muscles working together to produce movement

force-couple relationship

106

what is on the x and y-axis for the force-velocity curve?

velocity (X)
force (Y)

107

ability to produce and reduce force and stabilize the kinetic chain in all three planes of motion

neuromuscular efficiency

108

alignment of the musculoskeletal system that allows the center of gravity to be maintained over a base of support

structural efficiency

109

soft tissue models along the lines of stress

Davis Law

110

joint motion is caused by...

muscles pulling ON the bones. Muscles cannot actively push

111

what are the three pillars of motor behavior?

motor control
motor learning
motor development

112

motor response to internal and external stimuli

motor behavior

113

how the CNS integrates sensory info with previous experience

motor control

114

integration of motor control process through practice, leading to a relatively permanent change to produce skilled movement

motor learning

115

the change in motor skill behavior overtime throughout the lifespan

motor development

116

cooperation of the nervous and muscular systems in gathering and interpreting information and executing the movement

sensorimotor integration

117

group of muscles that are recruited by the CNS to provide movement

muscle synergies

118

cumulative sensory input from all mechanoreceptors that sense position and limb movements

proprioception

119

force reduction and deceleration is part of..

eccentric

120

force production and acceleration is part of

concentric

121

what type of training is eccentric movement important in?

hypertrophy
maximal strength

122

what type of training is concentric movement important in?

power production

123

use of sensory information and sensorimotor integration to help the HMS in motor learning

feedback

124

internal feedback

sensory info used by the body to reactively monitor movement and the environment

125

external feedback

information provided by some external source (fitness professional, recording, mirror) to supplement the internal environment.

126

knowledge of results

used after completion of movements to be informed on outcome
get the client involved after each rep or set

127

knowledge of performance

info about the quality of the movement
get the client involved with her sensory process