Flashcards in Module 7.2 Deck (127):
associated with stress and anxiety, may result in headache, fatigue, poor circulation, or poor sleep patterns
Abnormal breathing patterns
the highest rate of oxygen transport and utilization achieved at maximal physical exertion
maximal oxygen consumption (Vo2 MAX)
what are the two respiratory passages?
where air travel through before entering the respiratory airways
collect the channel air coming from conducting airway
3.5 ml x kg x min = 1 metabolic equivalent (MET) is what kind of formula?
resting oxygen consumption
cardiorespiratory exercise help decreases...
resting HR, cholesterol, blood pressure, and the risks of heart disease, blood clots, depression, anxiety, obesity and diabetes.
study of energy in the human body
a process of which nutrients are acquired, transported, used and disposed of by the body
what is the ultimate source of energy
what are the main sources of chemical energy?
what does food have to be broken down before it used as energy?
the material or substance on which an enzyme acts
what are carbs when they are broken down?
glucose, a simple sugar
requires oxygen is known as
requires no oxygen is known as
energy storage and transfer unit within cells
where the body can no longer produce enough energy with normal oxygen intake
elevation of metabolism after exercise
Excess post oxygen consumption (EPOC)
what are the 3 types of the energy systems?
what is the benefit of using fat as energy?
an inexhaustible supply of fat for prolonged exercise.
what is the substrate of fats?
ATP - PC energy system
ex. sprints, low reps, high loads
breakdown of glucose
mod-to high intensity
ex, typical fitness workouts of 8-12 reps
uses the aid of oxygen to generate ATP.
Aerobic glycolysis -> Krebs cycle -> Electron transport chain
Long term energy
1 min-2 mins
what is the process called when protein becomes the main source of fuel?
what are the two acids built up in the glycolysis system?
lactic acid (anaerobic)
pyruvic acid (aerobic)
fat produces more ATP but uses MORE oxygen than carbs T/F
Using oxygen takes longer to generate ATP than without oxygen T/F
breakdown of triglycerides into smaller subunits called free fatty acids to convert FFA into Acyl-COA, which are available to enter the Krebs Cycle & lead to the production of additional ATP.
the ability to recover quickly
a respiratory quotient of 1.0 indicates what?
Carbs are supplying the fuel
a respiratory quotient of .7 indicates what?
fat is supplying the fuel
a respiratory quotient of .7-1.0 indicates what?
a mixture of both carbs and fat as the fuel source
protein cannot be used as energy until it..
turns into glucose through the glucogenesis process
what is the energy system we used for sustain exercise and at rest?
high intensity/sprint uses....
science concerned with internal and external forces acting on the body
influence applied by one object to another accelerates or decelerates the second object.
a force that produces rotation
the closer the load to the point of rotation, the less torque it creates (T/F)
True - bent arm is easier than straight arm.
rigid 'bar' that rotates around a stationary fulcrum
Bones are LEVER
What are the three classes of the Lever?
1st fulcrum (rest) in the middle
2nd resistance in the middle
3rd effort in the middle (most common on human limbs)
1st class lever example
nodding head (rest in the middle)
2nd class lever example
3rd class lever example
bicep curl (most common in human limbs)
the study of applying laws of mechanics and physics to determine how forces affect human movement & to better predict performance in athletic events
above the point of reference
below the point of reference
positioned nearest the center of the body, or point of reference
positioned farthest from the center of the body or point of reference
the front of the body
the back of the body
farther from the middle of the body
closer to the middle of the body
on the opposite side of the body
on the same side of the body
list the anatomic location
what are the plane of motion?
Frontal plane consists of what type of motions
side to side
lateral flexion (spine bends one side to another)
sagittal plane consists of what type of motions?
up and down
transverse plane consists of what type of motion?
examples of front plane exercises
side lateral raises, side lunge, side shuffle
examples of sagittal plane exercises
bicep curls, tricep push down, squats
examples of transverse plane
throwing, golfing, swinging a bat, trunk rotation
arms are on the side with the palm faced forward. Terms such as anterior, posterior, medial, lateral, ab/adduction apply to the body with it is in this position
what axis is frontal plane in?
what axis is sagittal plane in?
what axis is transverse plane in?
bending movement; decrease relative angle between segments
straightening movement; increases relative angle between segments
extension of the ankle
flexion of the ankle
movement in the frontal plane away from the middle
movement in the frontal plane towards the middle
transverse plane arm movement from anterior to lateral
what is an example of horizontal abduction?
chest flies, push ups, chest presses
OR when hips are flexed at a 90 degree. Ex. seated hip abduction/adduction
transverse plane arm movement from lateral to anterior
rotation toward the middle of the body
rotation away from the middle of the body
what are the scapular motions?
what is the motion of scapula retraction
adduction - towards the midline
what is the motion of scapula protraction?
abduction - away from the midline
what is motion of scapula depression
what is the motion of scapula elevation?
what are the three types of muscle actions?
eccentric and concentric
(the negative/deceleration & acceleration)
the stabilizing portion (the pauses)
constant muscle tension
constant muscle length
constant velocity (speed) of motion
what happens to myosin and actin during the eccentric phase?
they are pulled apart from each other - allow the muscles to be at its resting length
what happens to myosin and actin during the concentric phase?
they overlap each other (cross-bridges) the sliding filament theory.
force is produced, muscle tension is developed & movement occur through a given ROM
when the muscle is exerting force equals to the force being placed on it leading to no visible change in muscle length
when a muscle shortens at a constant speed over the full ROM
where is isokinetic used?
mainly on machines and limited to rehab labs only.
moving in the opposite direction of force accelerates or produces force; muscle shortens
muscle develops tension while lengthening, decelerates forces
a muscular force equal resistive force stabilizes forces; no change in muscle length
as the velocity of contraction increases, concentric force decreases, and eccentric force increases.
resting length of a muscle and the tension it can produce at that length
muscles working together to produce movement
what is on the x and y-axis for the force-velocity curve?
ability to produce and reduce force and stabilize the kinetic chain in all three planes of motion
alignment of the musculoskeletal system that allows the center of gravity to be maintained over a base of support
soft tissue models along the lines of stress
joint motion is caused by...
muscles pulling ON the bones. Muscles cannot actively push
what are the three pillars of motor behavior?
motor response to internal and external stimuli
how the CNS integrates sensory info with previous experience
integration of motor control process through practice, leading to a relatively permanent change to produce skilled movement
the change in motor skill behavior overtime throughout the lifespan
cooperation of the nervous and muscular systems in gathering and interpreting information and executing the movement
group of muscles that are recruited by the CNS to provide movement
cumulative sensory input from all mechanoreceptors that sense position and limb movements
force reduction and deceleration is part of..
force production and acceleration is part of
what type of training is eccentric movement important in?
what type of training is concentric movement important in?
use of sensory information and sensorimotor integration to help the HMS in motor learning
sensory info used by the body to reactively monitor movement and the environment
information provided by some external source (fitness professional, recording, mirror) to supplement the internal environment.
knowledge of results
used after completion of movements to be informed on outcome
get the client involved after each rep or set