Flashcards in Module 4 Deck (32):
What are the two components of privacy?
1. The right to be left alone
2. The right to exercise control over their personal information
What are the 3 basic guidelines for consent?
What's the best way a psychologist can communicate information to new clients?
A charter of rights
What are the 5 sections that comprise the new set of 12 Australian Privacy Principles (APPs)?
1. Consideration of personal information
2. Collection of personal information
3. Dealing with personal information
4. Integrity of personal information
5. Access to, and correction of, personal information
What are some situations that may require the sharing of client's confidential information?
- Gathering history for assessment or giving feedback to next of kin
- Harm to self or others
- Court orders
- When dealing with multiple clients
- Payment situations (eg: Medicare)
What are the 4 models of confidentiality?
- Limited (others can access info)
- Contractual (negotiated by a set of rules)
- Discretionary (decided upon by clinician)
What things need to be included in a confidentiality contract?
- Nature of the service
- Purpose of the service
- Estimated duration
- Client's involvement (eg: homework)
- Risks and benefits
- Whether a report will be written
- Who will be providing the service (qualifications and experience)
- Client's right to withhold info
- Complaints procedure
- Limits of confidentiality
What are 4 conditions that oblige psychologists to disclose confidential information?
- With consent of client
- Legal obligation
- Risk of harm
- When consulting colleagues and using concealed identities or have client consent
What things should you talk about with clients with regards to confidentiality?
- Get informed written consent regarding the limits to confidentiality
- Discuss foreseeable uses of information disclosed
- Advise the client if you are going to breach confidentiality
- Record all communications
What are 5 risk factors for imminent violence?
1. Active symptoms of serious mental illness (particularly command hallucinations)
3. Lack of insight/disconnection from reality
4. Lack of empathy/remorse
5. Poor response from treatments such as anxiolytics
What are the 3 categories that suicidal clients can fall into?
1. Those who are chronically ill etc. where the common factor is hopelessness
2. Those who have suffered severe trauma and are in a state of chronic depression
3. Those where suicidality is a last resort to express their pain
What percentage of those who die by suicide have had contact with a health professional prior to their death?
What percentage of those who die by suicide have experienced a mental health condition prior to their death?
What things need to be covered in a suicide risk assessment?
- Specific suicide plan
- Beliefs about suicide and intentions
- Access to means/method
- Relevant personal and family history
- Degree of hopelessness, depression and impulsivity
- Recent events
- Alcohol/drug use
- Resources available
- Any non-suicidal future plans
What are some demographic factors that can increase one's likelihood of suicide?
- Male and between 25 and 44 years, or over 70
- Member of minority group
What would someone with a low risk of suicide present like? What would you do for them?
- Currently unwell, or no current problems
- Face-to-face assessment within 1 month, or within 7 days if just discharged
What would someone with a medium risk of suicide present like? What would you do for them?
- Currently unwell
- Face-face assessment within 1 week
What would you do for someone at high risk of suicide, or medium risk with low assessment confidence or high changeability?
Face-to-face assessment within 24 hours
Rossouw, Smythe, and Greener (2011) conducted qualitative research to investigate how psychologists cope with client suicides. What were the 3 themes they found?
1) Shock at hearing the news
2) Experiencing suicide assessment as a burden
3) Resultant professional and personal crises
What are the 4 most important areas when considering psychological service delivery using technology?
- Control of psychological practice and data access
What were the 2 main findings of Kampf et al (2008) study on Australian psychologists' perceptions of confidentiality?
- 89% believed they had an ethical duty to break confidentiality and disclose information to a third party when they believed the patient was dangerous
- 64% believed they have a legal duty to disclose confidential information about a patient they believe to be dangerous
What are some alternative options to disclosure?
- Intensify treatment or frequency of sessions
- Recommend inpatient facility
- Directly attempt to control the situation
What proportion of the Australian population was born overseas?
Where does Australia rank in terms of income per capita?
Where does Australia rank in terms of life expectancy?
What are the 4 models of interpreting?
- Linguistic - word-for-word, neutral
- Psychotherapeutic/constructionist - the meaning/feeling of words is most important
- Advocate/community interpreter
- Cultural broker/bicultural worker - interprets not only the spoken word but also relevant cultural and contextual variables
What is a refugee?
Someone who flees their home country for refuge or safety and is now without a home
What is an asylum seeker?
Someone who has left their home country seeking sanctuary but their claim is yet to be assessed
What are 3 unique practices professionals develop for working with people experiencing poverty?
- Addressing power dynamics
- Managing boundaries
- Addressing external stressors
What was one way that Borges' (2014) participants changed their conceptualisation of appropriate boundaries?
By giving food or money to clients experiencing poverty
What are some of the barriers to reflective practice?
- Avoiding thinking about an experience because it's uncomfortable
- Failing to acknowledge your true feelings
- Failing to see how your behaviour could have affected others
- Failing to accept constructive criticism