Module 4 : Embryology Of The Femal Pelvis Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Module 4 : Embryology Of The Femal Pelvis Deck (15)
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Relationship between genital and urinary system

- develop at the same time
- both arise from mesoderm that initially takes form as the WOLFFIAN BODY


XX or XY

- sex of embryo determined by father at fertilization
- genital tracts of both male and female are same up until 7 weeks from LMP


Yolk sac

- germ cells that sex the embryo originate in the yolk sac
- differentiate from another germ cell and then migrate to the gonadal ridge ( anteromedial side of wolffian duct)


Wolffian ducts

- mesonephros ( 2nd stage kidney)
- in males hormones (testes inducer) cause differentiation and growth of wolffian ducts and inhibit Müllerian duct


Müllerian ducts

-paramesonephric ducts
- paired with wolffian duct
- with no male hormones the wolffian ducts regress and the Müllerian ducts are stimulated by maternal hormones (estrogens)
- forms = Fallopian tubes, uterus, proximal vagina


Vagina origin

- dual origin: upper portion from the Müllerian ducts and lower portion from urogenital sinus
- if fusion is incomplete and imperforate (not permeable) hymen will result
*everyone has a hymen but supposed to be permeable


Development of Fallopian tubes and upper vagina

- cranially ends of Müllerian ducts form the Fallopian tubes
- caudal ends of the ducts form the uterus and upper vagina


Abnormal Müllerian duct development

- arrested development
- failure of fusion
- incomplete resorption


Arrested development

- if one or both Müllerian ducts do not develop
- uterine aplasia (completely absent)
- unicornuate uterus (1/2 uterus with everything else)
- Mayer-Rokitansky- Kuster- Hauser
+ complete agenisis of uterus and vagina
+ MRKH syndrome


Failure of fusion

- the Müllerian ducts develop but fail to fuse together
+ uterus didelphys
- 2 complete systems (severe)
- has higher association with renal agenis
+ uterus bicornis Bicollis
- 1 vag, 2cx, 2 ut
+ uterus bicornis Unicollis
- 1 vag, 1 cx, 2 horns uterus
- bicornuate uterus
- most common seen on us
+ uterus Arcutus
- bump in fundus outside


Bicornuate uterus

- serosal indent (outside or uterus) greater than 10mm at fundus


Incomplete resorption

- Müllerian ducts fuse but the septum is not reabsorped
+uterus septus
+ uterus subseptus
- ost common occurring of all Müllerian anomalies
- poorest reproductive outcomes
+bad vascular supply can’t support fetus
-can be fixed


Septate uterus

- serosal (outside) surface has a normal contour
- indentation of greater than 1cm of the endometrium from the fundus
- septum is entire endometrial canal
-subseptate only partially down canal


T shaped uterus

- specific uterine anomaly in women exposed to DES while in embryo
- T shaped uterus means less volume meaning preterm deliveries
- can not see on us
- DES given to stop spontaneous abortion
- discontinued caused carcinoma in vagina
- used to treat seizures



- used to lessen morning sickness
- caused limb abnormalities
- now being used to combat aids and leprosy