Module 10.2 : Soft Markers Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Module 10.2 : Soft Markers Deck (15)
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1

soft markers

- increase the fetal risk for a genetic disease
- correlation with other risk factors
+ history
+ maternal age over 35
+ maternal serum testing results
- patients are referred for genetic counselling to review risk of having a chromosomally abnormal fetus
- patients decide if they will choose to have a genetic testing like an amniocenteses or CVS

2

5 soft markers on ultrasound

- nuchal fold > 6mm
- echogenic bowel
- mild ventriculomegaly > 10 mm
- echogenic focus in the heart
- choroid plexus cysts

3

3 soft markers when seen alone not with chromosomal abnormality

- single umbilical artery
+ cardiac abnormalities
+ renal abnormalities
+ growth restriction
- enlarged cisterna magna > 10mm
- pyelectasis
+ dilation of kidneys

4

soft markers associated with trisomy 21

- EIF = echogenic intracrdiac focus
- thick nuchal fold
- echogenic bowel
- shortened femur/ humerus
- absent nasal bone

5

echogenic intracardiac focus (EICF) (EIF)

- must be as bright as bone
+ 4 chamber splits screen
+ turn down gain all the way till bone disappears then notice if still present
- 88% only in left
- 5% in right
- 7% in both
- right sided, biventricular, or multiple are reviewed
- NOT ASSOCIATED WITH CONGENITAL HEART DISEASE

6

nuchal fold

- 16-17 6/7 weeks >/= 5mm
- 18-24 weeks >/= 6mm
- nuchal index
+ mean nuchal fold / BPD
+ value of 11

7

echogenic bowel

- must be as bright as bone
+ same procedure as EIF
- association with nonchromosomal abnormalities
+ cystic fibrosis
+ congenital infection
+ intra-amniotic bleed
+ Down syndrome

8

shortened long bones

- femur or humerous
- below 2.5% fro gestational age
- > 0.9 of that predicted by measure BPD
- use BPD/long bone chart

9

choroid plexus cysts

- CPCs
- demonstrate in 2 planes
- cyst >/= 3mm
- look for open hands

10

fetal renal pelvic dilation

- not a marker on its own
- if seen with other markers then considered a multiple marker and more worrisome
- 16-20 wks >/= 5mm
- if > 10mm at any time in a pregnancy is a concern for renal blockage or hydronephroses

11

2 vessel cord

- singel umbilical artery
- could result in
+ cardia
+ renal
+ low birth weight
- fetal echo don't at 24 wks

12

mild ventriculomegaly

- >/= 10mm
- trisomy 21
+ idiopathic
= don't know why they are connected

13

nasal bone

- hypoplastic or absent nasal bone is big marker for T21
- routinely seen on nuchal lucency exam
- not routinely scanned in detailed but seen in profile

14

what to assess for nasal bone

- absent or hypoplastic
- ethnicity must be considered
- Caucasian pop absent nasal bone is high risk for aneuploidy
- having a nasal bone significantly decreases risk of T21

15

fifth finger clinodactyly

- hypoplastic or absent mid phalanx of fifth digit
- finger will curve inward
- marker for T21