Module 4: Neck and Cervical Vasculature Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Module 4: Neck and Cervical Vasculature Deck (13)
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1

The thyroid is superficial, such that it is easily palatable in a physical exam. In a MRI, the normal thyroid is hypointense to muscle on a __ weighted scan, while it is intermediate to fat and muscle on ____ weighted

T1W, T2W

2

What are the three pairs of salivary glands?

The three pairs of glands are parotid, submandibular and sublingual

3

Which cranial nerve passes through the parotid glands

facial nerve

4

In the tongue which muscles demonstrate greater T1W and T2W? Intrinsic or extrinsic muscles?

intrinsic muscles demonstrate greater T1W and T2W signal than the extrinsic muscles.

5

What are the three pairs of arteries that supply blood to the neck, face and brain?

three pairs of arteries that supply blood to the neck, face and brain. They are the internal carotid, external carotid and the vertebral artery.

6

The internal arteries supplies blood to the _____, while the external carotid arteries supply the _____.

a) face, brain
b) brain, face
c) neck, face
d) face, neck

b) brain, face

7

deoxygenated blood return to the heart by the ____ veins

jugular

8

The three common pathologies in vasculature of the carotid and vertebral artery are

Sstenosis
Aneurysm
Dissection

9

What is Stenosis?

Stenosis in the narrowing of the artery, usually due to artherosclerotic plaque. The lack of blood travelling up the neck to the brain can cause ischemia of the brain tissue. This can lead to symptoms of a transient ischemic attach (TIA) or cause a more severe stroke. When the plaque becomes loose, it will travel as an embolus to the brain and block off smaller vessels.

10

What is an Aneurysm?

An aneurysm is a dilated bulge in the arterial wall due to weakening of its three layers or simply by trauma. An aneurysm can be classified as true or false. A true aneurysm is the weakening of three of its layers while a false one is a leakage of blood into the layers of the vessel causing a cavity.

11

What is Dissection?

dissection of the artery is the tearing of the inner layer of the vessel (tunica intima). This allows blood to fill the spaces between the inner and middle layer (tunica media). The underlying cause of dissection can be due to trauma, neck manipulation, infection or other vascular diseases (Hasso, 2012). Vasculature diseases of this nature must be diagnosed quickly for the patient to receive the right treatment.

12

True or false, dissections can nnot be diagnosed without contrast enhanced MRA.

FALSE
Dissections can also be diagnosed without contrast-enhanced MRA. Using the blood products and their characteristics in MRI, we can successfully diagnose a dissection without gadolinium injection. Methemoglobin is formed in the subacute stage of bleeding (2-3 days). This methemoglobin is bright on T1W and T2W images. Therefore, by using a T1W fat saturation sequence, we can demonstrate the dissection within a false lumen of the artery.

13

Is CE-MRA commonly used in traumatic or emergency situations? When would contrast-enhanced MRA be used?

Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (CE-MRA) can be used to diagnose stenosis, aneurysm and dissections. Though commonly not utilized in traumatic or emergency situations, it can be used as follow-up to known vasculature diseases. MRI also has the ability to perform non-contrast enhanced MRA. It is an option for a patient that has an allergic or has underlying contraindication to gadolinum-based contrast or simply has known chronic kidney failure.