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Flashcards in Module 4 Section 1 Deck (25)
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1

What is the empirical formula?

The simplest whole number ratio of atoms of each element in a compound

2

What is the molecular formula?

Actual number of atoms of each element in a compound

3

What is the structural formula?

Shows the arrangement of atoms carbon by carbon with the attached hydrogen and functional groups

4

What is a skeletal formula?

Shows the bonds of the skeleton only, with any functional groups

5

What is the displayed formula?

Shows how all the atoms are arranged and the bonds between them

6

What is a homologous series?

Bunch of organic compounds that have the same functional group and general formula

7

What is the general formula for alkanes?

CnH2n+2

8

What is a structural isomer?

Same molecular formula but the structure is different

9

What are the three different types of structural formulas?

Chain isomers - carbon skeleton arranged differently - different physical properties
Positional isomers - functional group on different carbon atom - different chemical and physical properties
Functional group isomers - atoms arranged into different functional groups

10

Alkanes are ......

Saturated - all carbon bonds are single

11

What forces does an alkane have?

Covalent bonds in the molecules and induced dipole-dipole interactions holding them all together

12

What affects the boiling point of an alkane?

Longer= stronger - more surface area
Branches chain = lower boiling point - pack closely have smaller molecular surface area

13

What is produced when alkanes are burnt completely on oxygen?

Carbon dioxide and water

14

Why do alkanes make good fuels?

Release so much energy when the burn

15

All gases at the same temperature and pressure have the same ...............

Molar Volume

16

What happens when alkanes are burnt in limited oxygen?

Carbon monoxide and water is produced

17

Why is the production of carbon monoxide a problem?

Poisonous - binds to the haemoglobin in the blood - less oxygen can be carried around the body

18

What is Heterolytic fission?

The bond breaks unevenly with one of the bonded atoms receiving both electrons - firms a positively charged cation and a negatively charged anion

19

What is homolytic fission?

The bond breaks evenly- each bonding atom receives one electron from the bonded pair - two electrically uncharged radicals are formed - very reactive

20

How are haloalkanes formed?

Halogens and alkanes react in photochemical reactions- started by by light - requires ultraviolet light
A hydrogen is substituted by chlorine or bromine - free-radical substitution reaction

21

Describe the reaction mechanism of chlorine and methane?

Institution - free radicals are produced
Sunlight provides energy to split cl2 - splits equally by homolytic fission creative a highly reactive unpaired election - few eradicate

22

What is a general formula?

Algebraic formula that can describe any member of a family of compounds

23

For free radical substitution what is the reaction mechanism

Initiation - radicals produced - bond breaks evenly in homolytic fission
Propagation - free radicals are used up and created in a chain reaction
Termination - free radicals are mopped up - stable molecule is formed when two free radicals join together

24

What are the problems with free radical reactions?

Mixtures are produced which need to be separated - by using excess methane there is a greater chance that cl radical will collide with methane
A mixture of positional isomers can form

25

What is the general formula for an alkane?

CnH2n