Flashcards in Module 6 Deck (84):
Kahneman: What is a lot of conflict fed by?
Kahneman: What is the loss aversion bias?
When people put a lot more weight on negative events than positive events eg: demand a reward of $200, if the risk is $100, so they're very risk/loss averse
Kahneman: When might being an optimist be helpful? When might it be unhelpful?
Helpful - as an entrepreneur, more likely to persevere
Unhelpful - as a financial advisor
What is the availability heuristic?
When people assume a greater likelihood of some phenomena, because it is easier to recall from memory
What is confirmation bias?
When people seek confirmation of their existing beliefs, and ignore alternative information
What is the representativeness heuristic? Provide example
Ignoring the actual probability of an event occurring, and instead categorising it based on its similarity to a prototype eg: John must belong to a wrestling league, because he is muscular (looks like a wrestler), whereas Jim isn't muscular
What is the homogeneity effect?
When we tend to perceive members of out-groups as being more similar to one another, while members of our own in-group are seen as more diverse
What is stereotyping?
Attributing characteristics to someone based on their membership in a particular group
What is social desirability bias?
When we report more socially desirable information about ourselves, while being less likely to report undesirable infomation
What is the planning fallacy?
When we underestimate the amount if time it will take us to do a task (optimism), but then overestimate how long it will take others to do a task (pessimism)
What is the identifiable victim effect?
When we are more strongly influenced by a single victim with an identity, versus a large unidentifiable group of people. This is why a single victim can be more persuasive than statistics
What is fundamental attribution error?
When we tend to explain the behaviour of others according to internal attributes, but explain our own behaviour according to external factors. (I'm assuming when the behaviour is 'positive', this effect would be the opposite)
What is the bandwagon effect?
When we tend to do or believe something when more people are doing or believing it. It may be more persuasive when others are doing it, or we are just motivated to conform
Which self-control-related effect has come under criticism recently, due to failure to replicate in studies?
Baumeister: What are the 2 traits psychology has found contribute to success in all areas they've been studied?
Intelligence and self-control
What parts of the brain does self-control come from, versus things like temptation and desire?
Self-control - frontal regions, newer in terms of evolution
Temptation - back regions, older in terms of evolution
What did the 2002 study on prejudice find?
- Physically attractive adults and children are treated more positively than unattractive, even by those who know them
- There is a great deal of consistency about what is considered attractive, and this holds true across cultures
- Physically attractive children and adults behave more positively, and have more favourable traits and outcomes
What is sociometric status?
The respect and admiration one has in face-to-face groups
Why might SWB be more affected by sociometric rather than socioeconomic status?
Sociometric status is defined locally in the context of face-to-face groups, whereas SES is typically defined as global status within one's country (comparisons with individuals immediately around us affects our happiness more)
What is local-ladder effect they predicted?
Higher sociometric status leads to higher SWB
Sociometric status shapes what two important determinants of psychological wellbeing?
- Increased sense of power
- Increased sense of social acceptance
What is the effect of longing for higher status, versus actually possessing it?
Longing for status = lower SWB
Possessing status = higher SWB
How have characteristics of good leaders, as discussed in research literature, changed between the mid 80s to late 90s?
- 1986: "Dominance, masculinity, conservativeness"
- Late 90s: Self-confidence, teamwork, knowledge of the business, conceptual thinking, emotional intelligence, creativity, focused drive, customer-driven, drives profits, global perspective
What is the difference between a leader and a manager?
A manager administers and sticks to the status quo, while a leader innovates and develops new ideas
Why were early theories about leadership characteristics flawed?
- Unable to verify qualities scientifically
- Suggested innateness
- Suggested people couldn't change their characteristics over their life
- Suggested context had no impact
What is a transactional leadership style?
- Focus on transaction between the leader and their subordinates
- Focus on physical and security needs of subordinates
- Based on bargaining or rewards/punishment
What is a transformational leadership style?
- More empowering
- Focus on subordinates strengths
- Focus on intrinsic/internal motivation
What kind of relationship do leadership and organisational culture share?
What type of organisation is more likely to be influenced by individuals' leadership style?
A young, fledgling organisation
What type of organisation is likely to influence the leadership styles of the individuals within it?
An older, well-established organisation
What type of leader is more likely to work within the constructs of an organisation?
What type of leader is more likely to change or create the culture of an organisation?
Explain the relationship between leadership style, organisational performance and organisational culture?
The relationship between leadership style and organisational performance is mediated by organisational culture (ie. leadership style doesn't have a direct effect)
What is the most effective leadership style?
One that creates a competitive and innovative organisational culture
What are 4 key influences on leadership style?
1. National culture (eg: Japan = hierarchical, US = individualistic)
3. Interpersonal style (task vs people orientated)
4. How someone perceives and gives information (details/facts vs big picture concepts)
What are the 6 categories that the 24 strengths are grouped into in the VIA?
What are the 5 strengths under wisdom?
- Love of learning
What are the 4 strengths under courage?
What are the 3 strengths under humanity?
- Social intelligence
What are the 3 strengths under justice?
What are the 4 strengths under temperance?
What are the 5 strengths under transcendence?
- Appreciation of beauty and excellence
How much of the variance in happiness is due to our genes?
How much of the variance in happiness is due to life circumstances?
How much of the variance in happiness is due to intentional activity?
What are some characteristics of happy people?
- Fulfilling relationships
- More grateful
- More helpful
- Optimistic about the future
- Live in the present
- Make physical activity a habit
- Often spiritual or religious
- Deeply committed to lifelong goals
What was the main finding of the PWB met-analysis?
It appears to be possible to improve PWB with behavioural interventions
What are the 6 dimensions of PWB?
- Environmental mastery
- Personal growth
- Positive relations with others
- Purpose in life
What did the PWB meta-analysis find regarding the effect of behavioural interventions on PWB?
They had a moderate effect (0.44)
Why did the PWB meta-analysis use moderator analyses?
Because heterogeneity was high
What did the PWB meta-analysis suggest future studies should do?
Make use of follow-up measures to gain more insight in the longitudinal development of the effects of interventions on psychological wellbeing
Did the authors of the PWB meta-analysis suggest PWB is more trait-like, or state-like?
State-like, because trait-like would be harder to change
What did the PWB meta-analysis find about different intervention approaches?
Face-to-face is better than self-help/group
What were some limitations of the PWB meta-analysis?
- Low quality studies
- Self-reports (social desirability)
What is the state of flow?
- Deeply absorbed in an intrinsically rewarding activity
- Lose self-awareness
- eg: playing music, dancing, running, deep conversation
What is savouring?
- Opposite of flow
- Intensify positive experiences by focusing on the sensations, thoughts, and feelings
- Prevents hedonic adaptation - when we adapt to our experiences and return to a baseline level of affect
How do we increase eudaimonic wellbeing?
- By finding meaning and purpose in life
- These activities might be accompanied by some hedonically unpleasant experiences, but the sense of meaning and purpose derived leads to a sense of happiness and satisfaction
How can we cultivate optimism?
- Write about your best possible self in ten years from now
- Can lead to significant increase in mood compared to control group
- Facilitates a sense of control over your future
How can we practice overcoming adversity?
Spend 15 minutes a day for 4 days writing about a traumatic experience, and how it has shaped who you are
What is compassion?
Being aware of the suffering of yourself or others, and feeling emotionally moved that suffering to the point of wanting that suffering to end
What are 3 components of self-compassion?
- Self-kindness vs self-judgment
- Common humanity vs isolation
- Mindfulness vs over-identification
What are some moderating factors of the relationship between job performance and satisfaction?
- Obtaining rewards
What is a mediating factor of the relationship between job performance and satisfaction?
What are two ways to ensure happiness at work?
1) Select a job that fits what the employer needs and what the employee is seeking
2) Select a job that fits what the employee is seeking and what they are actually receiving
How does a knowledge contract look for the firm and employee?
Firm - needs a certain level of skill and knowledge in its employees if it is to function efficiently
Employee - wishes the skills and knowledge they bring will be used and developed
How does a psychological contract look for the firm and employee?
Firm - needs employees who are motivated to look after its interests
Employee - seeks further interests private to self eg: achievement, recognition
How does an efficiency/rewards contract look for the firm and employee?
Firm - needs to implement generalised output, quality standards and reward systems
Employee - seeks a personal, equitable effort-reward bargain and controls, including supervisory ones, which are perceived as acceptable
How does an ethical (social value) contract look for the firm and employee?
Firm - needs employees who will accept the firm's ethos and values
Employee - seeks to work for an employee whose values do not contravene their own
How does a task structure contract look for the firm and employee?
Firm - needs employees who will accept technical and other constraints which produce task specificity or differentiation
Employee - seeks a set of tasks which meets their requirements for task differentiation eg: variety, interests, feedback, targets
What are 5 other factors to look for in a job (in order of importance for job satisfaction)?
1. Skill variety
2. Task identity
3. Task significance
What are other terms for 'job' sources and 'individual' sources of stress?
Situational and dispositional
What percentage of professionals said they would seek help if they needed it? What percentage admitted there had been times when they needed help but didn't seek it?
What are some of the barriers to mental health professionals seeking help?
1) Want to solve problem on their own
- Not having enough time
- Financial costs
- Fear about colleagues finding out
- Negative consequences relating to AHPRA's mandatory reporting requirement
What is the main cause of the negative stigma towards mental health?
Lack of mental health literacy
What percentage of the participants reported having a mental illness at some point in their life?
What were some of the specific barriers faced by student clinicians?
- Unsure where to get help
- Financial costs
- Preference for getting help from family and friends
What are the 3 dimensions of burnout?
2. Job disaffection/depersonalisation
3. Reduced professional accomplishment
What is exhaustion?
- Lack of physical and emotional energy
- Repetition and urgent work demands
What is job disaffection/depersonalisation?
- Interpersonal aspect of burnout
- Affects relationship between employee and their clients
- Employee develops strong cynicism, cold and indifferent attitude towards clients
What is reduced professional accomplishment?
- Reduction of expertise and experiences
- Reduction of ability to communicate daily, interact and manage time efficiently
- Not as relevant as the other two dimensions
What is the popular tool for measuring burnout?
- Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI)
- Interpersonal focus
- Looks at everything from employee to organisation
What is the key to avoiding burnout?
Working longer hours to deal with the stress
Why is burnout thriving today?
Mismatch between individual workers and their jobs
- Have too much to do
- Not enough time and resources
- Lack of control
- Decreasing rewards