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Flashcards in Module 7 Deck (46)
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1

Why is a stronger magnet in MRI better ?

1. more spins in low energy states therefore greater spin excess
2. higher signal
3. better image quality

2

What is the purpose of a shim coil?

Maintain magnetic homogeneity

3

What is the purpose of a magnetic filed gradient?

Spatial location of RF signals

4

What is the process called by which a FID is converted to a spectrum?

Fourier transformation

5

Which of the following converts signals into images?
a. Software
b. Receiver
c. Image processor
d. Computer system

c. image processor

6

What are the four types of magnetic behaviour related to?

Related to the configuration of orbiting electrons

7

Which of the following has the highest magnetic susceptibility ?
a. Diamagnetism
b. Paramagnetism
c. Ferromagnetism
d. Superparamagnetism

c. Ferromagnetism

8

True or False: paired electrons means a large magnetic moment?

False - means no magnetic moment when there is no external magnetic field

9

What happens when a diamagnetic substance is exposed to an external magnetic field?

They have a small magnetic moment that opposes the external applied field so they are repelled.

10

Which of the following is false about paramagnetic substances:
a. They have unpaired orbital electrons
b. They have a small magnetic moment
c. When an external field is applied the add to it
d. they have a high positive susceptibility

d. is false paramagnetic substances have a low positive susceptibility

11

Fill in the blank
Superparamagnetic substances have a __________ magnetic susceptibility

moderately positive

12

Can a ferromagnetic substance be dangerous in an MRI environment and why or why not?

Yes it can be dangerous because it can become a projectile

13

Why do ferromagnetic substances have a very high positive magnetic susceptibility?

They have a half filled electron shell which results in strong attraction and alignment to an external magnetic field.

14

What happens to a ferromagnetic substance once an external magnetic field is applied and then removed?

It becomes a permanent magnet

15

What is the limit of the stray fringe field of a MRI magnet that is publicly accessible?

5 Gauss - called the '5 Gauss line'

16

What is the range of magnetic field strength of most clinical MRI machines?

0.2T- 4T

17

What is the purpose of shimming ?

To minimize field inhomogeneity

18

What are advantages of permanent magnet MRI machines?

- low purchase and operating cost
- minimal fringe field
- open MRI less claustrophobic

19

True or false: when multiple wires are carrying current in the same direction the magnetic fields are additive

True

20

What determines the strength of the magnetic field in a solenoid electromagnet?

Amount of loops and current and distance between the loops

21

What is an electromagnet called at room temperature ? Why?

It is called a resistive magnet because there is resistance because it is subject to Ohm's law

22

Why is the magnetic field low in resistive magnets ?

Magnet would be destroyed because the wires would have to much resistance and would result in overheating

23

What are some advantages of superconducting
magnets ?

- low power requirements
- only one that has high field strengths
- low operational costs

24

Why do ultra high field systems have small bores?

It is easier to maintain homogeneity

25

What is involved in ramping up a superconducting magnet ?

- running current through main superconducting coil

26

What are Niche magnets used for?

Used to image specific parts of the body

27

What are two types of shielding used in MRI?

Passive or active

28

Why is passive shielding not used often?

- not really necessary unless ultra-high field magnet
- expensive to surround room with steel
- need special foundations

29

How does active shielding work?

Current is run in the opposite direction from main magnet results in cancellation

30

Are passive and active shimming used together ?

Yes - passive shimming maximizes homogeneity of the scanner and active optimizes for each patient and scan