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Flashcards in Module 8 Deck (44)
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1

What are the Canadian exposure limits to RF, static magnetic field and time varying magnetic field?

Time varying magnetic field - 3T/s
Static magnetic field- 2T
RF- core body temp can't be raised more than 0.5*C and any body part more than 1*C

2

What are the guidelines for exposure for MRI operators?

Operators should not be continuously exposed to magnetic flux of more than 0.01T during the day

3

True or False : MRI safe means minimal hazard in the MRI scan room ?

False - MRI safe means NO hazard in the MRI scan room

4

True or False: if an item is safe at 3T it should definitely be safe at 1.5T

False

5

What is the risk of an item that is MRI unsafe 2?

Risk is the object heating resulting in burns

6

True or false : MRI unsafe 1 the main risk is that the object may move or dislodge

True

7

Fill in the blanks
Time varying field oscillate depending on the pulse sequence. Sequences with ____(1)_____ flip angles and ____(2)_____ RF pulses are of greater safety concern

1. Greater flip angles
2. more RF pulses

8

What are the units of SAR?

watts/Kg

9

What are 2 areas that have an impaired ability to dissipate heat?

Eyes and testicles

10

What 3 factors are related to RF heating ?

frequency, field strength and patient size

11

Why is it mandatory to enter patient's weight on MRI scanners?

So SAR can be calculated and monitored

12

What steps can be taken to reduce risk of burns ?

- thermal insulation between patient and conductive material
- cold compress on tattoos or other conductors that can't be removed

13

Which of the following is not a primary effect of gradient magnetic field
a.. Peripheral nerve stimulation
b. magnetophosphenes
c. burns
d. acoustic noise

c. burns

14

What determines the effects of time varying magnetic fields ?

-pulse duration
- wave shape
- repetition pattern
- distribution of current

15

Why is the induced current greater in the peripheral tissues ?

amplitude of the gradient is higher farther from iso

16

Which of the following is not true about peripheral nerve stimulation?
a. Sensations such as itching and crawling are possible
b. Involuntary muscle contractions happen
c. Sequences with perfusion, diffusion and EPI are more likely to cause PNS
d. At lower amplitude and gradient these effects increase

d. is not true
- higher amplitude and gradients

17

What causes noise in MRI ?

as current passes through gradient coils they vibrate and cause noise

18

True or false - patients are required to wear hearing protection because the noise level is too high.

False - noise level falls within safety guidelines but recommended hearing protection

19

What are magnetophosphenes?

Visual disturbances caused by retinal phosphates being stimulated by induction from the gradient field

20

What is the static magnetic field responsible for?

Aligning the nuclei

21

What are some safety issues associated with a static magnetic field?

Projectile risk
malfunctioning of implants

22

What causes the temporary t wave elevation on ECG when static magnetic field?

The magneto-hydrodynamic effect - when conductive fluid moves across a magnetic field

23

Which of the following is not an effect of static field?
a. Fatigue
b. Hypertension
c. dizziness
d. headaches

b. hypertension
-hypotension is an effect

24

What happens when a magnet is quenched ?

Quenching a magnet rapidly ramps down magnetic field in a life threatening emergenct

25

Why is there an alarm for oxygen levels?

Helium can back up into the scan room or venting equipment can fail

26

True or false: due to limited experience and testing at high field strengths patients with implants and pregnant patients should be imaged at lower field strengths

true

27

What types of shielding are used to contain a fringe field within the 5 Gauss line?

Active and passive shielding

28

What force is a concern for a patient that has an aneurysm clip?

Rotational force

29

Where is a ferromagnetic object attracted to in the MRI scanner?

The isocentre where a patient would be while being scanned

30

True or false : level 1 personnel do not need supervision in zone 4

false - they need supervision

31

What is an example of a level one MRI personnel?

Receptionist, cleaning staff, emergency team

32

What two types of screening should a patient undergo before a scan?

1. verbal
2. screening form

33

True or false: A quick verbal screening is adequate for regular staff in MRI.

True

34

True or false : metal detectors can replace screening.

False always need screening

35

What factors determine the size of an artefact?

-type of metal
- pulse sequence
- imaging parameters

36

True or false : most coils, filters and clips are imbedded in vessel wall and are unlikely to be dislodged

true

37

True or False: all heart valves are safe to scan

False - most are though need to be screened

38

True or false: Otologic and ocular implants are usually safe to scan.

False - usually unsafe due to the fact they may have magnetic components that could be attracted to or interfered with

39

What extra screening should patients who may have metal in his or her eye undergo?

A plain x-ray

40

What are the main considerations with bullets and shrapnel?

1. Where (different compositions) and 2. What (near vital organs)

41

What are some risks of halo vests in MRI?

-deflection
- dislodgement
-heating
-electric current induction

42

What criteria need to be met when scanning a patient with a contraindicated pacemaker ?

- need a cardiologist and radiologist nearby
- need a rep from the pacemaker company
- patient is fit and not dependent on pacemaker

43

What are some considerations when scanning pregnant patients ?

- no gadolinium contrast
- avoid imaging in 1st trimester
- weigh risk vs benefit

44

What are some general safety procedures?

1. screening everyone - private room for patients
2. changing patient into gown
3. monitor patients verbally/visually or physiologically
4. get anyone coming in the room to check pockets