What was the hierarchy in a monastery?
Pope - head of church
Abbot - Ness of monastery and would inherit land
Prior - ran the monastery when abbot was away
Obedientaries - senior monks
Monks and nuns - full members who had taken their vows
Novices - monks who hadn’t yet taken their vows
What did senior monks include?
Cellarer who looked after food, informerer who looked after sick monks, guest master who looked after pilgrims and travellers, sacrists who looked after church arrangements and almoners that gave alms to the poor
What was the vow of poverty?
When monks and nuns gave up all wealth and possessions when they joined a monastery
What was the vows of Chastity
When monks and nuns would abstain from sex and other pleasures like alcohol
What was the vow of obedience?
When monks and nuns obeyed the teachings of god a
Through the the bible and their abbot and the rules of their order
What was the vow of stability?
Where monks and nuns promised to never leave the monistic community and sometimes meant not leaving the monastery it’s self
How did the number of monks and religious houses change between 1066-1135?
Monks Increased from 1000 to 5000
Religious houses went from 60 to 260
How did the number of cathedrals attached to monasteries change between 1066-1135?
There were 4 in 1066 but increased to 19
What was part of the new monistic order?
The reforms and Cluniac brought in by the Normans
How many Cluniac monasteries were in england by when?
End of the 11th century, there were 36 Cluniac monasteries
Why was monasticism in decline?
Monasteries needed land to be self sufficient and depended of the local land lord for this who had a say in who became abbot and could take money form the monastery
Why was there too much secular interference in monasteries?
Due to instability caused by Viking raids, poverty and over reliance on local landlords
How were the rules of st Benedict not being strictly followed?
Monks wouldn’t fast, stopped being vegetarian and wore rich clothes
Why did lanfranc want reforms?
Due to his monistic background
How did lanfranc help reform monasteries?
Set up a clear hierarchy on monistic structure, introduced a set of constitutions
Who and when was the first Cluniac monastery set up?
In 1077 in Sussex by William de Warenne
How did Cluniac monasteries make reforms?
The Cluniac order reinforced The rule of Benedict more strictly
How did the Normans impact abbots?
In 1075, only 13 of 21 abbots were AS and by 1086, only 3 AS abbots remained
How did William reform monasteries?
Gave a lot of money to abbeys and monasteries as part of their pence for the battle of Hastings
What kind of roles in society did monasteries play a part in?
Hospitals, center to of scholarship (took a scribe 18 months to write a new bible) and historians
What type of school did children under 10 go to and why?
Went to a church school to produce future priests/ monks and local peasant boys got taught to work as servants in the monastery
What type of schools did children over 10 go and why?
Grammar schools which were run by the church until the 14th century when they became independent and this education was not free, they could then become merchants, parish clergy
How and what were grammar school students learning?
Wrote notes on stone boards for 4 years and studied Latin, music and verse, astronomy and maths and law
What did university students do?
Spent 6 years learning arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, music theory, grammar logic and meteoric order and could then study medicine, law or theology for 6 years
What was the point in university?
So you could get a degree in Master of Arts
What language was used in uni?
All books and lectures were in Latin
How did Latin affect the government?
Became the universal language and the language of the government
How did Latin affect record keeping?
- the only history written in English was one of the AS chronicles that went from 1100 -1154
- Monks has to translate the Abbey’s old English documents to Latin
How did the Normans permanently Influence language?
Around 1/4 of all modern English words originate from the French language
How were classes affected by language?
- Norman-french was common among higher classes, clerks and middle class townspeople
- majority of the population being peasants spoke English