What % of people lived in the countryside in medieval times?
90% of people
How many lived in villages according to the domesday book and when?
13,400 in 1086
What was the heirachy of the peasantry?
Freeman - free peasants but had to pay their lord rent for land
Villeins - worked the land with no pay and no freedom but got farm land for themselves
Borders and cottars - villeins but poorer and got less land
Slaves - made up 10% of the pop in 1066. no freedom or land
What did freemen have to carry out?
800N (extra unpaid days) of work for the lord
What percentage of crops did villagers give as a tithe?
What were demesnes?
Specific areas in the village that included,
Stone, Manor House, barns, churches, villager’s houses, grazing land and mills
What were peasant homes walls made of?
Wattle and daub
What was the reeve?
Senior official In the village to manage the manor and peasants
What were the farming ploughs made of?
Metal and were pulled by oxen
How were villages divided?
25-35% of the land was kept for the lord and the rest was divided among the peasants
How was village land organised for peasants use?
Cottages was where they lived, strips of land was where they grew crops and common land was where they grazed their animals
Where did peasants animal’s live?
In their house with the people
How did peasant class change and stay the same from the AS to the Normans
Continuity: 97% of the pop were still peasants
Change: the no. of freemen fell significantly as they couldn’t afford higher taxes Normans were charging and the no of slaves reduced as it was not economical to support them
How did land and wealth change and stay the same from the AS to the Normans
Continuity: churches were still centre of village life and cottars still had small houses with regular plots
Change: the value of land in Yorkshire dropped by 60%
How did social life change and stay the same from the AS to the Normans
Continuity: peasants still mainly ate what they could grow like bread, oat porridge and vegetable stew and rarely ate meat
Change: lord of the manor spoke french instead of English and bishops, lords and knights needed to run their estates and take part in local commissions
Give some information about buildings in towns
Houses were close together
land was expensive so first floor was bigger than ground floor
a wall which guards patrolled surrounded the town
High street was the main road through the town leading to the gates
Give some information about a charter
Large and well established towns applied for a charter form the local lord/king to become independent
Chartered towns governed themselves through a council and mayor
Charter towns still had to pay taxes to techie lord and king
What was a town guild?
A group of tradesmen and craftsmen that set prices, organised training, made sure goods were well made and controlled who was allowed to carry out business and wages
How often did towns have a market?
Once or twice a week with few shops open most days
What did market traders have to give?
Tax to their lord
Where did traders come from and what did they sell?
The countryside to sell eggs, cheese, butter, fruits and vegetables. There were as many animals as people also
What was hygiene like in towns?
Streets were narrow, there were no drains and instead an open ditch in the middle of the street,
Overcrowding led to overflowing waste, increase in disease, house fires and theft
Give some information about jobs in towns
Merchants and craftsmen operated from buildings on high streets
Citizens of towns served as watchmen, helping town milita when there was trouble and had to pay taxes
Once people were accepted as master of their trade, they could become well off
Who was at each stage of the social hierarchy in towns?
Doctors, lawyers and property owners becoming richer when the Normans took over. Crafts men came under this group and servants and unskilled workers at the bottom
In 1086, what did the domesday books record about towns?
There were 18 towns in 1086, with a population of over 2000 ams 122 smaller towns and boroughs
How was england still rural in 1086?
Only 5% of the population lived in towns
How does the domesday book show the growth of trade?
By 1086, there were 13 salt houses in droitwich
English coastal towns like Boston, Lincoln, London and Southampton grew
Why did people move from a countryside to a town?
To learn a trade or work as a servant to a rich merchant
Who were money lenders and were they subject to guild control?
Jews that landed money to people who would pay it back later, they were unpopular as Jews performed it. They were not subject to guild control as they didn’t actually sell anything
What did apothecaries do and were they subject to guild control?
Sold remedies made of herbs and plants and were subject to guild control
Give some jobs that were subject to guild control
Blacksmiths, armorers, apothecaries, carpenters and barbers