When did William win the battle of Hastings?
14th October 1066
Name some ways William established control
Terror, military presence, patronage (E.g. giving land and positions or power to people to insure their loyalty) concessions (E.g. compromising or giving enemies what they want to make them support you) and legality ( William showing he was the rightful king of England)
How did William use terror when dealing with the powerful English lords?
Sealed the land and disinherited the families of those who dies at Hastings giving it normans who fought for him making them loyal
How did William use use military presence to deal with early revolts and when?
1067 - 1068 normans built castles wherever they went usually forcing the English to build them for them
How did William use terror when dealing with the early revolts and when?
1067 William violently crushed rebellions that got more serious over the following two years
When was the harrying of the north?
Give evidence suggesting William used terror in the harrying of the north
- 100,000 were killed and the domesday book written in 1086 records 80% of Yorkshire as waste
- in jan 1069, Norman wake Robert of Comines was murdered
- bishop of Durham’s house was set on fire
How did William use concessions in the Harrying of the North?
William payed the Vikings to return to their 240 ships that invaded in the summer of 1069 and leave
Why was it serious the earls revolted?
They were high in power
Who was willing to help the Northern Earls overthrow William?
Anglo Saxons, Normans, Danish king court, Brittany and France
Give examples of resentment against William
- Waltheof got lands in south England amd became Earl in 1072 but was only given the northern half of Northumbria and was much less wealthy than Norman Earls
- in 1069, Ralph defended Norwich against Danish attach but didn’t have as much power as his father
Give some opportunities for Earls to revolt
-The rebels timed their attack for when William was in Normandy
-William introduce his sheriffs into marcher earldoms instead of the Earls being able to control everything themselves causing Roger
Earl of Hereford to experience a loss of authority
What gave Ralph earl of Norfolk opportunity to revolt?
By inheriting most of his fathers lands and tittles after his death in 1069
How were the armies of the Earls prevented from combining?
Troops of Bishop Wulfstan of Worcester and abbot of Evesham used their troops to stop Roger crossing the servern river
Why did the revolt fail?
Poorly planned with little support and Danes didn’t arrive in time to provide support for the rebellion
What did the Archbishop use excommunication for?
To cut off Roger from the church until he dropped his plans for the revolt
How many castles did the Normans build and when?
1066 - 1086, built around 500 motte and Bailey castles
What was the motte of a castle?
Large mound of earth around 5-7 meters high, fireproof and was quick to build with enough peasant labour (though around 4-9 months to build)
What was the keep of a castle?
Strong wooden tower lookout point and attack position for archers to defend
How could you access the keep of a motte and bailey castle?
Up steep steps into the motte or sometimes through a sort of bridge
What was the Bailey in a motte and bailey castle?
Enclosure between the motte and protected the palisade and outer defences allowing local people and livestock to take shelter their during attacks
What was the palisade of a motte and bailey castle?
Strong fence made of solid timber
What was the gatehouse of a motte and bailey castle?
Controlled access to the castle
What was the ditch around a motte and bailey castle for?
To protect the palisade and sometimes a drawbridge could be pulled up to defend the gatehouse
What did Anglo Saxons used to build?
Burhs ( fortified towns )
When where stone keeps added?
1070 and by 1100, all new castles were made of stone
What did castles symbolise?
Norman suppression of Anglo Saxons as they were a visible distinction between the rulers and the ruled
What were Norman castles primarily built for?
To protect nobility from hostile locals
How close where castles, what did this allow?
No significant town was over a days march from a castle allowing the Normans to deal with any rebellions swiftly
Why did Hereward the Wake rebel against William?
William and the Northern Earls confiscated heward’s fathers land and his brothers
Give a famous attack involving Hereward the Wake
The attack on Peterborough when in 1070, Hereward, king Sweyn and Moncar launches a series of Guerrilla style attacks in the marshlands and Finland’s of East Anglia
How did William first try to stop Hereward?
Besieged the island of Ely and built a 3km long compartment with a castellion which then sank into the marshland as too many Norman soldiers crossed at once
What was the second thing William did to try and stop Hereward?
Built a sledge tower and brought in a local witch to torment rebels but then Hereward set fire to the area burning the sledge tower and bridge. Hereward was then betrayed by monks and disappeared after the rebels surrendered
How did William clear a path for his coronation?
-Burned down much of Romney for killing Normans
-made citizens of Canterbury swear loyalty out of fear of violent attacks
How did William peacefully deal with powerful English lords?
- claimed he was promised the throne by Edward the Confessor
- gave new Norman lords land for fighting in Hastings (1067-1069)
- gave land to English lords who pledged loyalty