Flashcards in mood disorders REVISE Deck (45)
what is a mood disorder?
disorder in which primary disturbance appears to be one of mood
what are the two types of mood disorders?
what does unipolar mean?
experiencing low mood only
what does bipolar mean?
experiencing high mood, usually also with low mood
what are some symptoms of depression?
sadness, worthlessness, poor sleep, guilt, appetite changes
what are the signs of someone having depression?
socially withdraw, fatigued, poor concentration, inactive, aches and pains
psychomotor retardaion - thoughts and movements may slow down
psychomotor agitation - don't being able to sit still and fidget
what is anhedonia?
lack of feeling of pleasure
what is major depressive disorder?
5 depressive symptoms to be present for at least 2 weeks
episodic as symptoms may be present (up to 5 months) for a while then clear
what is double depression?
when a person has both persistent depressive disorder and major depressive episodes
what is the lifetime prevalence of major depressive disorder and of dysthymia?
MDD - 16.2%
dysthymia - 2.5%
consequences of depression?
number 1 cause of disability in the world
2-9% of people with depression commit suicide (compared to 1% of general population)
10% of young adults commit suicide
greater risk of medical diseases
what does relapse mean?
a return of current episode
what does recurrence mean?
start of a new episode
what does acute mean?
it is currently hapening (doesn't relate to severity)
stats for greater risk the more episodes tha are had?
more than 3 episodes 40% relapse within 3 months and 70% within 6 months
neurobiological factors of depression
moderate genetic risk - heritability of major depressive disorder is 37%
neurotransmitters - diminished function of the dopamine system (reward-motivation)
lowered sensitivity in serotonin receptors (happiness and mood regulation)
brain abnormalities - hyperreactivity of amygdala (processing of emotions) and diminished activity of hippocampus (emotional regulation) to emotional stimuli
biological treatments of depression
antidepressants e.g SSRIs
fewer side effects than old anti-depressants
less effective at preventing risk of relapse
Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT)
used as a last treatment option for extremely depressed and suicidal people as major ethical implications
cognitive factors of depression
negative triad of beliefs caused by negative event
causes inner speech full of negative propaganda - Negative Automatic Thoughts (NATs)
dwell on sad experiences
cognitive treatment for depression
what it targets
what it involves
targets rumination of NATs
aims to change perspective of thinking, remembering etc.
tracks and challenges NATs by setting homework to find evidence for the NATs
increase participation in posiively reinforcing activites
leads to mastery (can do that) and pleasure (positive change in mood)
issues with treatments for depression?
don't help prevent relapse once treatment has ended
need for maintenance treatments
gender difference in diagnosis of depression and reasons for this difference?
Major Depressive Disorder is twice as common in women as it is in men
twice as many girls exposed to sex abuse
women more likely to be exposed to chronic stressors such as poverty
acceptance of social roles e.g focusing on appearace
what percentage more likely to survive depression if they had stronger social relationships?
what is bipolar disorder 1?
one or more manic episodes within lifetime
what is bipolar disorder 2?
one or more major depressive episodes plus at least one hypomanic episode
what is cyclothymic disorder?
brief spells of mild hypomania and mild depression over a 2 year period
15-20% develop bipolar 1 or 2
difference between mania and hypomania?
hypomania doesn't involve impairment to everyday life and doesn't cause problems
person just feels more productive and energetic and irritable
what is the prevalence of bipolar 1?
what number of leading disability in the worldis bipolar 1?
what is the suicide rate of bipolar disorder 1?
25x that of normal population
highest of all mental disorders and maybe drawing with schizophrenia