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Flashcards in More Deck (70)
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1

Viral pathogen in viral conjunctivitis

Often adenovirus 3
8 day incubation period

2

Conjunctivitis + follicles/papillae

Papillae - have central blood vessel - bacterial + allergic

Follicles - no central blood vessel - White cell collections - viral + chlamydial

3

What is cycloplegia and what is it used to treat?

Cyclopentolate eye drops - dilate the pupil
Help avoid posterior synechiae with anterior uveitis

4

Acute onset of grittiness, red eye, normal visual acuity or mild blurring
No FB

Episcleritis

5

What is scleritis associated with?
Symptoms

Systemic diseases - autoimmune and inflammatory
Dull deep severe pain

6

What is not affected in preseptal cellulitis?
Difference with orbital cellulitis

Management of both

Ocular muscles and visual acuity
Reduced eye movement and possible diplopia with orbital cellulitis

Systemic antibiotics

7

Which arteries affected in non-arteritic anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy

Short posterior ciliary arteries
Leads to infarction of optic nerve head

8

What causes optic disc pallor?

Loss of neural tissue due to infarction

9

What two features are present in giant cell arteritis that are not present with non-arteritic anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy

Pain
Raised ESR AND CRP

10

Treatment of giant cell arteritis

High dose systemic steroids

11

Hypermetropia is a risk factor for

Acute angle-closure glaucoma (smaller eyes)
Non-arteritic anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy

12

Pain with acute angle-closure glaucoma
Other features

Yes
Halos around lights
Oval unreactive pupil

13

Treatment of acute angle-closure glaucoma

Acetazolamide
Timolol eye drops - beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist
Apraclonidine - alpha agonist

14

Risk factor for retinal detachment

Myopia - short-sited

15

Symptoms of retinal detachment

Flashing lights - photopsia in peripheries
Floaters

16

The effect of cataract on lens refractive power

Thicker do more powerful therefore refractive index increases - increasing myopia

17

Symptom of cataract

Glare

18

What are Drusen

Small yellow accumulations of extra cellular waste material from the photoreceptors
- accumulate under neuroretina
Wet Age related macular degeneration

19

Wet macular degeneration

Haemorrhages
New vessels - grey/green lesions

20

When do you do fluorescein angiography

Wet macular degeneration - to see microvascular lesion areas

21

Open angle glaucoma

Peripheral visual field loss
Myopia risk factor
Disc cupping

22

Upper left quadrantanopia

Inferior optic radiations - temporal lobes

23

Lower/inferior left quadrantanopia -

Upper optic radiation in parietal lobe

24

3rd nerve palsy gaze

Down and out (may have dilated pupil)

25

Painful unilateral 3rd nerve palsy

Posterior communicating artery aneurysm

26

What does CN 4 supply - trochlear nerve

Superior oblique - rotation of eye in towards nose

27

What does CN 6 supply

Lateral rectus
Horizontal diplopia

28

Neonatal conjunctivitis 2-5 days after birth and 5-12 days after birth

Chylmadia - 5-12 days after with creamy white discharge

Gonorrhoea - 2-5 days after

Staphylococcus- yellow discharge

29

Shaken baby syndrome triad

Encephalopathy
Sub dural haemorrhage
Retinal haemorrhage

30

Phoria versus tropia

Phoria - misalignment usually suppressed

Tropia - eyes deviate - can't be controlled