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Flashcards in Vision 2 Deck (20)
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1

What is a cataract?

Opacity in the lens

2

Incidence of cataracts in over 65s

Over 75%

3

Presentation of cataracts

Blurred vision
Unilateral can go unnoticed but loss of stereopsis affects distance judgement
Bilateral cause gradual visual loss, dazzle and monocular Diplopia

4

Presentation of cataracts in children

Squint, loss of binocular function, a white pupil or nystagmus/amblyopia

5

Initial cataract treatment

Mydriatic drops and sunglasses

6

Surgery risks with cataract surgery

2% get serious complications - vision might not be normal afterwards, might still have dazzle
Distance glasses often needed

7

Post op complications for cataracts

Posterior capsule thickening described as "cataract returning" - easily treated with capsulotomy
Eye irritation
Can get anterior uveitis
Rarely vitreous haemorrhage, retinal detachment, glaucoma or endopthalmitis (infection of eye fluid)

8

Cataracts risk factors

Genetic (most children and some adult)
Diabetes
Any steroid use
High myopia
Dystrophia myotonica

9

How soon does intervention need to be done with congenial cataract

Within 1st 6 weeks of life

10

When is optic disc pale

Optic neuropathy

11

When are optic disc margins blurred

Papilloedema (raised ICP, malignant HTN and cavernous sinus thrombosis) and optic neuritis

12

What is normal arterial to venous width ratio in optic disc

2:3 - veins are bigger

13

When do you get abnormal retinal pallor

Retinal artery occlusion

14

Which eyes are more prone to retinal detachment

Myopic eyes (cataract surgery for myopic eyes also increases the risk)

15

How does retinal detachment present?

4 F's
Floaters
Flashes
Field loss
Fall in acuity (curtain falling over vision - e.g. Over lower half as retina detaches upwards)
Painless!!!

16

How can you tell where in the retina the detachment is

Field defects reflect location of detachment

17

What do you see on opthalmoscopy with retinal detachment

Grey opalescent retina ballooning forward

18

Treatment of retinal detachment

Refer for urgent surgery - vitrectomy and gas tamponnade or scléral silicone implants
Cryotherapy or laser coag used to secure retina

19

Rates of post/op redetachment in retinal detachment

5-10%

20

How does retinitis pigmentosa present?

Night blindness is initial sign
Then progresses to tunnel vision