Morphology Flashcards Preview

Linguistics > Morphology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Morphology Deck (20)
Loading flashcards...
1
Classes of Words

Open (Can be changed or added to in time)

Content words, lexical items. Nouns, verbs.

2
Classes of Words

Closed (cannot change)

Function words, grammatical items. Pronouns, conjunctions, prepositions.

3

Morphology

The study of the internal structure of words.

A system of adjustments in teh shapes of words that contribute to adjustments in the way speakers intend to be understood. 

4

Morpheme

The smalles meaningful unit in the grammar of a language. 

The meaning of a morpheme may vary depending on its immediate environment. 

They can be bound: a grammatical unit that never occurs by itself but is always attached to another, like -s in dogs. 

or free: a unit that can occur by itself like 'dog' in 'dogs'

5

Allomorph

One of two or more complementary morphs which manifest a morhpeme in its different phonological or morphological environments. 

the plural morpheme -s has three allomorphs:

[-s] as in 'hats'

[-z] as in 'dogs'

[<<z] as in 'boxes'

6

Root

The portion of a word that is common to a set of derived or inflected forms, is not further divideable and carries the principle portion of meaning of the words in which it funcitons. 

A bound morpheme as it cannot exist by itself

7

Stem

Is the root or roots of a word, together with any derivational affixes. Inflectional ones are added to make it a real word

The verbs 'tie' and 'untie' are stems

8

Affix

A bound morpheme that joins a root or stem

Can be derivational: changes the category of a word, is always close to the root of a word. 

Joy --> joyful

Inflectional: does not change the word class of the stem. Typically located farther from the root.

dog --> dogs

9

Infix

an affix inserted into the root 

bili: buy

bumili: bought

-um- is infix

10

Prefix

Affix joined before a root or stem

11

Suffix

Affix attached to the end of a root

12

Circumfix

an affix made up of two parts which surround and attach to a root

13

Analytic Language

One that conveys grammatical relationships syntactically, via the use of unbound morphemes. 

Also referred to as an 'isolating' language

Chinese, Vietnamese, Japanese

14

Agglutinative Language

Most words are formed by joining morphemes.

Each affix represents one unit of meaning and do not become fused with others

Swahili, Quechua

15

Fusional Languages (Western European)

A fusional language is everything mixed together while an agglutinative is neater and more purposeful. 

A language in which one form of a morpheme can simultaneously encode several meanings

Spanish, German

16

Polysynthetic Languages

Words are composed of many morphemes. 

There are several different roots as opposed to mixing a whole bunch of affixes together.

Agglutinative and Fusional are Polysynthetics

Mohawk

17

Ablaut

When there is no affix, but morphology nonetheless. 

Man

Men

the vowel change is an ablaut

18

Reduplication

When a morpheme is repeated to change the meaning of a word

19

Pluralization of English, Morphophonemically

leaf-leaves voicing occurs

When a word ends with an 'f', then the voiceless labiodental consonant goes to a voiced one.

Exceptions: barf-barfs

with verbs, [s] remains instead of becoming a [z]

20

Important Things to Remember:

1. When breaking up morphs, make sure the parts make a word

2. Plural markers, tense markers are inflectional

3. Prefixes don't go with nouns