Flashcards in Motivation Deck (29):
What is the modern definition for motivation?
Psychological needs or desires that energize or direct behavior
Genes predispose species-typical behavior
Evolutionary perspective on motivated behavior
Does naming a behavior explain it?
What is human behavior affected by?
A physiological need creates an aroused tension state (a drive) that motivates organisms to seek need satisfaction
Drive-Reduction Theory on motivated behavior
What is the physiological aim of drive-reduction theory?
A tendency to maintain a balanced/constant internal state
To______ _________, certain substances and characteristics of the body must be kept within a _______ ________
sustain life. restricted range
Motivated behavior extends beyond the physiological aim of drive reduction
Incentive theory on motivated behavior
What is an excellent piece of evidence for incentive theory
People are motivated by internal goals
Intrinsic motivation of incentive theories
People are motivated by external goals
Extrinsic motivation of incentive theories
Emphasizes the prioritizing of diverse needs; basic needs before higher-level needs
Maslow's "Hierarchy of needs" model on motivated behavior
Where are the fundamental basic needs on the Maslow hierarchy
There's a need for frequent, affectively pleasant interactions with a few other people
These interactions must take place in the context of a temporally stable and enduring framework of affective concern for each other's welfare
What is high belongingness strongly associated with?
Positive affect and improved health
What is a sense of failed belongingness a major contributor to?
Loneliness, stress, and anxiety; depression and suicide
Our attempts to predict our future affect (emotional state)
Belief that both good and bad moods will last longer than they do
What are the three problems with affective forecasting?
1. We leave out details
2. We fill in gaps in our picture of the future with details that we borrow from the present
3. We fail to recognize that things will look different once they happen
discipline that has sought to emphasize human strengths
strategy of anticipating failure and compensating for this expectation by mentally over-preparing for negative outcomes
Theory proposing that happiness predisposes us to think more openly
broaden and build theory
tendency for people to remember more positive than negative information with age
tendency for our moods to adapt to external circumstances
evaluation of our worth
inverted U-shaped relation between arousal on the one hand and performance on the other