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Flashcards in MOTIVATION AND EMOTION 1 Deck (15):
1

Definition of motivation

The process which influence the direction persistence and vigour of gold directed behaviour

2

Homeostasis and drives

Definition of homeostasis-refers to a state of physiological equilibrium actively maintained by the body

Physiological distractions to homeostasis produce drives

Internal state of tension motivates organism to reduce tension

Does not explain why we increase drives

3

Behaviour activation and inhibition system (BAS &BIS)

BAS: activated by signals of potential reward and gratification
-positive emotion
-prefrontal and left hemisphere

BIS: activated by seven as a potential pain, punishment and non-reinforcement
-Negative emotion and avoidance behaviour
-Limbic, right hemisphere

4

Cognitive processes

-incentive to environmental stimuli that will organise to want to go : " you come I'll give you money"

-expectancy (beliefs) x value (how much you enjoy the thing you want to accomplish) Theory


-extrinsic ( external stimuli: money) vs intrinsic ( internal stimuli: wanting to learn) motivation

5

Maslow's hierarchy of needs

-Abraham Maslow

-Believed humans strive for personal growth
-self actualisation

Deficiency : needs to be met prior to growth

Growth needs

Criticisms - can aspire to growth needs before deficiency

6

Self-determination Theory SDT

- Edward Deci and Richard Ryan

-assumes we seek to improve, self actualise and grow

-SDT
1. Competence
2. Autonomy( you control your destiny)
3. Relatedness (connected with others)

Extrinsic and intrinsic control of behaviour is graded

7

Environmental and cultural factors

-Food variety
-classically conditioned cues such as McDonald's M
-eating with others happen
-time-of-day

8

Obesity and health risks

Body mass index (BMI) is a measure of weight, taking into consideration height divided by weight

-underweight <18.5
-normal weight 18.5-25
-overweight 25-30
-obesity > 35

Health risks associated with this:
-cardiovascular disease, talk to diabetes, meant to illness, social stigma

9

Causes of obesity

Genetic component-heritability 40 to 70%

Environmental component:
- over abundance of high-fat/high carbohydrate foods
-culture of this on quantity over quality
-increased entry behaviour
-high levels of dopamine in the reward centre of the brain

10

Eating behaviours-hunger and weight regulation

-Metabolism refers to the bodies rate of energy utilisation
- set point is the standard by which body weight (or fat mass) is regulated
- sets the rage for body weight
- can be shifted
-satiety is the psychological state of feeling full

11

Biological mechanisms

BIOLOGICAL PROCESSES

- glucose levels (stored in the liver)
- stomach digestion ( release of cholecystokinin )
- leptin levels

BRAIN MECHANISMS
- lateral and ventromedial hypothalamus (initiation of eating)
- paraventricular nucleus (stop eating)

12

Psychological mechanisms

-

-positive and negative reinforcement
- attitudes and beliefs ( eat all off your plate)
-habits (pop-corn at movies)
-Body ideals

13

Anorexia nervosa

-anorexia nervosa is an eating disorder in which individuals have an intense fear of being fat
-severely restrict food intake to point of starvation
-view themselves as fat despite being severely underweight

HEALTH PROBLEMS
-cessation of periods
-bone loss
-stres on heart
- mortality

14

Bluimia nervosa

-eating disorder where people are afraid of becoming fat

Occurs in phases
-binge eating
-purging


Can appear to maintain a normal body weight

HEALTH ISSUES
-gastric upsets
-gun disease
-severe eroded teeth

15

Causes of mental illness relating to thinness

Genetics: higher concordance rates for twins

Personality factors:
-anorexia: perectionalism
-bulimia: low impulse control, depression, anxiety
-environmental/ social
-more common in soviets with thinness ideals